07 Jan 2014:
Suburbs Offset Low Carbon
Footprints of Major U.S. Cities, Study Finds
City-dwellers in the U.S. have significantly smaller per-capita carbon footprints than their rural counterparts, according to new research
from the University of California, Berkeley. But the carbon-intense suburbs surrounding major cities essentially cancel out the small carbon footprints of city residents,
the study found. Vehicle emissions accounted for the majority of carbon dioxide produced in the suburbs, reflecting suburbanites' longer commutes to work, school, and stores. The study looked at 37 factors — including weather, income, home size, and transportation data — to estimate household carbon footprints. The average carbon footprint of households living in the center of large, densely populated cities is about 50 percent below the national average, while households in distant suburbs have carbon footprints up to twice the national average, according to the study published in Environmental Science & Technology
Interview: A Legal Call to Arms to
Fix Environmental and Climate Ills
University of Oregon law professor Mary Wood has an unsparing view of the state of environmental protection in the United States today: On a host of fronts — from climate change to the nationwide fracking boom —
the federal and state governments are failing to protect ecosystems and resources vital to current and future generations. In an interview with Yale Environment 360
, Wood discusses why she believes the judiciary needs to step in to force the executive and legislative branches to protect natural resources that are part of the “public trust.” She also explains why she supports ongoing litigation to reduce carbon emissions under a related doctrine to safeguard the "atmospheric trust." Says Wood, "The political branches of government are doing next to nothing to address this crisis ... Across the board, agencies are not using the statutes to protect nature — they’re using statutes to permit damage to the environment."
Read the interview.
31 Dec 2013:
Atlantic Ocean Zooplankton
Are Now Reproducing in Arctic Waters
For the first time, scientists have discovered species of Atlantic Ocean zooplankton reproducing in Arctic waters
. German researchers say the discovery indicates a possible shift in the Arctic zooplankton community as
The amphipod Themisto compressa
the region warms, one that could be detrimental to Arctic birds, fish, and marine mammals. Studying traps that have been suspended for 13 years in the Fram Strait, scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute found that small species of crustaceans common to the Atlantic are increasingly moving into Arctic waters. The researchers found fertile females as well as individuals at all stages of development, showing that the Atlantic species is reproducing in the frigid waters. The one-centimeter amphipods are smaller than respective Arctic species, meaning that the spread of the Atlantic crustaceans northward could reduce the volume of food available to Arctic predators. The research was published in the journal Marine Ecology Progress Series
26 Dec 2013:
Solar Activity Not a Major
Factor in Climate Change, Study Finds
Solar activity has had minimal impact on climate over the past millennium, new research
from the United Kingdom indicates. The findings counter the long-held view that periodic fluctuations in the sun's energy output have led to lengthy periods of warm or cold weather in the past. Looking at climate records from the Northern Hemisphere over the past 1,000 years, the scientists found that greenhouse gases have been the primary drivers of climate change since about 1900. Volcanic activity, which adds particles to the atmosphere that block sunlight, dominated climate patterns until roughly 1800, the study found. "Until now, the influence of the sun on past climate has been poorly understood," said Andrew Schurer of the University of Edinburgh and lead author of the study, which was published in Nature Geoscience
. "We hope that our new discoveries will help improve our understanding of how temperatures have changed over the past few centuries, and improve predictions for how they might develop in future."
19 Dec 2013:
Los Angeles Becomes First
Major U.S. City to Adopt Cool Roof Rule
The Los Angeles City Council has voted unanimously to require "cool roofs" for all new and refurbished homes, becoming the first major U.S. city to do so
. "Cool roofs" incorporate light- and heat-reflecting building materials, which can lower the surface temperature of the roof by up to 50 degrees F on a hot day, according to Climate Resolve
, the local organization that pushed for the ordinance. Such roofs do not necessarily need to be white, the Global Cool Cities Alliance says; they can also be shades of gray, or even red. Research suggests that by mid-century temperatures in Los Angeles will increase by 3.7 to 5.4 degrees F, with the number of days above 95 degrees F tripling in the city's downtown. "The changes our region will face are significant, and we will have to adapt," said UCLA scientist Alex Hall, who led the research. The mandate will not cost homeowners additional money because of expanded incentives.
Photo Essay: Documenting the Swift
Change Wrought by Global Warming
For 25 years, photographer Peter Essick has traveled the world for National Geographic
magazine, with many of his recent assignments focusing on the causes and consequences of climate change. In a Yale Environment 360
photo essay, we present a gallery of images he took while on assignment in Antarctica, Greenland, and other far-flung locales affected by climate change. View the photo gallery.
17 Dec 2013:
Australian Coal Projects
Threatened by Drop in Demand From China
Major Australian coal projects risk losing value due to falling demand from China, where leaders are increasingly concerned about growing public anger over severe air pollution, a new analysis from Oxford University
has found. Future coal mining projects are vulnerable to being "stranded" by a range of policy changes from the Chinese government, including environmental regulation, carbon pricing, investment in renewable energy, and energy efficiency, the report said. One expert told The Guardian
that global investors are already questioning the prudence of financing new fossil fuel projects
. Backers of a handful of upcoming Australian coal projects "should seek clarity" on the associated costs, the Oxford analysis warns. It also cautions that Australian state governments could suffer if projects are mothballed or abandoned. Of particular concern are two mega-mines supported by Australia's Prime Minister Tony Abbott
slated for development in Queensland. Once running at full capacity, the two projects combined would produce enough coal to emit more than 70 millions tons of CO2 a year.
Five Questions For Jerry Brown
On the West Coast Climate Pact
California Governor Jerry Brown was one of the moving forces behind a new agreement among three Western states and British Columbia to align their policies to combat climate change. Under the pact, signed on Oct.
28 by Brown and the governors of Oregon and Washington, the states and the province agreed to a series of actions, including putting a price on carbon and adopting a low-carbon fuels standard. Yale Environment 360
spoke with Brown and asked him five questions about the pact and overall efforts to tackle climate change.
04 Dec 2013:
New Paper Offers Sweeping
Plan to Decarbonize the Global Economy
Eighteen prominent international climate scientists and economists have authored a paper
that seeks to answer the most vexing environmental question facing the planet: How to reverse soaring carbon dioxide emissions and prevent the world from experiencing destabilizing climate change. Their answer, presented in the journal PLOS One,
boils down to this: Offer global leaders a detailed blueprint for decarbonization that involves setting a steadily rising price on carbon, the large-scale deployment of nuclear power and renewable energy, increased research into low-carbon energy technologies, and a reform of forestry and agricultural policies that leads to massive sequestration of CO2 — all while not spending more than 1 percent of global gross economic output. “In terms of economics, comparing a path to decarbonization versus a path of wrecking the planet are not even close,” economist Jeffrey Sachs, a co-author of the paper and director of Columbia University’s Earth Institute, said at a press briefing. “We haven’t shown the path of decarbonzation clearly enough (and) what the real choices are.”
27 Nov 2013:
China Set to Open
World's Second Largest Carbon Market
China is in the midst of launching seven carbon markets, the largest of which will open next month in Guangdong
, the country's most populous province. The carbon markets are a key element of China's plan to cut carbon emissions by up to 45 percent per unit of GDP by 2020. The Guangdong carbon permitting scheme will cap 2013 emissions at 350 tons for 202 companies in the heavily industrialized province. Twenty-nine million permits will be auctioned in the market this year and next, which will be the world's second largest carbon market after the European Union's, dwarfing carbon markets in Australia and California. In 2015 the number of permits auctioned will more than triple, officials said. Shanghai's carbon market launched yesterday and a similar market, about a quarter of the size of Guangdong's, is set to open in Beijing tomorrow. China's seven carbon markets together will regulate roughly 700 to 800 million tons of CO2 annually, roughly equal to the annual emissions of Germany.
25 Nov 2013:
Despite Discord, Climate Talks
in Warsaw End With Last-Minute Deals
After more than 36 hours of continuous negotiations, delegates at the U.N. climate talks in Warsaw agreed to two last-minute deals that kept alive hopes for staving off climate change. At talks that ended Saturday, delegates agreed to a proposed system for pledging cuts in greenhouse gas emissions. They also gave support to a new treaty mechanism for tackling the human cost of the effects of global warming, including floods, rising seas, and stronger storms, The New York Times reports
. Parties also agreed that countries will have until early 2015 to lay out their plans for cutting greenhouse gas emissions. Those plans are to be published in advance of a major U.N. climate meeting in Paris, set for late 2015, at which international leaders hope to reach an agreement to curb global emissions starting in 2020. Discord and acrimony characterized the talks, during which a vocal negotiating bloc emerged among developing countries, including India, China, and Saudi Arabia. This bloc forced the watering down of key aspects of the deal, according to the Guardian
21 Nov 2013:
U.K. Government Pledges
To Stop Backing Foreign Coal Power Plants
The United Kingdom has joined the U.S. in pledging
to stop using government funds to finance coal-fired power plants in other countries. "The two governments are going to work together to secure the support of other countries ... and the multilateral development banks to adopt similar policies," Britain's energy secretary told journalists gathered in Warsaw at the U.N. climate talks. The U.S. made the same pledge last month in an attempt to slow CO2 emissions from the world's coal-fired power plants. The International Energy Agency reports that coal accounted for 44 percent of global carbon emissions in 2011, and the fossil fuel remains the world's largest source of electricity and heat. While many diplomats applaud the U.K.'s move, U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and environmental groups are pushing for even stronger action, including more spending on renewable energy. "The rapid development of low-carbon infrastructure needs large injections of public capital," Ki-moon said.
20 Nov 2013:
Low-Income Solar Project
Is Recognized at U.N. Climate Talks
An Australia-based solar start-up company was recognized at the U.N. climate change talks in Warsaw for its work replacing highly polluting kerosene lamps with solar lighting in low-income regions of India. The company, Pollinate Energy, trains members of local communities to install household solar-powered lights in India's slums, where families often rely on kerosene for lighting. So far the project has installed solar-powered lighting systems for 10,000 people in 250 of Bangalore’s slum communities, in turn saving 40,000 liters of kerosene and 100,000 kilograms of carbon emissions, RenewEconomy reports
. The solar lighting systems are cheaper to operate than kerosene lamps and are less polluting and dangerous than kerosene, which can cause house fires and severe burns. The nonprofit project started in Bangalore — home to some of India's worst slums — as a way for children to do schoolwork after sunset. Pollinate Energy trains local installers to distribute and install the lighting systems as micro-entrepreneurs, which they call "pollinators."
18 Nov 2013:
U.N. Climate Chief Says
Many Coal Reserves Must Be Left in Ground
United Nations climate chief Christiana Figueres said that coal power can be part of the solution to curbing global warming, but it would require shuttering older coal power plants, advancing carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, and resolving to leave much of the planet's existing coal reserves in the ground. Her remarks, given at the International Coal and Climate Summit in Warsaw, are drawing criticism from environmentalists who oppose continued reliance on coal power. John Gummer, the chair of the U.K.'s climate advisers and former U.K. environment minister, told the Guardian
that "calling coal a clean solution is like characterizing sex trafficking as marriage guidance." Figueres said that coal power holds promise as a means of helping poorer countries develop their economies and reduce poverty, but said that the industry "must change." Figueres joins the growing list
of climate leaders who say that more than half of remaining fossil fuel reserves must be left in the ground
in order to avoid massive carbon emissions that could destabilize the climate.
12 Nov 2013:
China's Renewable Power
Sector Set to Outpace Rest of World by 2035
China is on track to generate more electricity from renewable energy by 2035 than the U.S., the European Union, and Japan combined, the International Energy Agency (IEA) said in a new report
. In its World Energy Outlook report, the IEA also said that by 2035 renewable energy sources — wind, solar, hydropower, and biomass — will make up more than 30 percent of the world's electricity supply, surpassing natural gas and rivaling coal as the leading energy source. Wind and solar photovoltaic power will see especially large gains, helping renewable energy account for nearly half the increase in global power generation over the next two decades, the IEA said. Carbon emissions related to energy generation will likely rise by 20 percent over that time, the report said, but policies and initiatives in the U.S., China, Europe, and Japan may help limit those emissions. "The right combination of policies and technologies is proving that the links between economic growth, energy demand and energy-related carbon dioxide emissions can be weakened," the IEA said.
11 Nov 2013:
Ozone Treaty From 1987
Has Also Slowed Global Warming
The 1987 Montreal Protocol, an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by banning chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), has also slowed global warming since the mid-1990s, a new analysis has found
. The ban has lowered global temperatures by about 0.2 degrees F since it was enacted, scientists report in the journal Nature Geoscience
. Researchers say that's a significant decline considering the planet has warmed by an average of 1.6 degrees F since 1900. CFCs, a class of refrigerants banned because of their ozone-depleting qualities, are also powerful greenhouse gases, with warming potentials many thousands of times higher than CO2. A widely used replacement for CFCs — hydrofluorocarbons, or HFCs — are less powerful greenhouse gases, but negotiations are underway to amend the Montreal Protocol to apply to HFCs as well. The study's lead author, Francisco Estrada of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, told Climate Central that by "pure luck" the Montreal Protocol has effectively slowed global warming, even more so than the Kyoto Protocol, which was was directly aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Interview: Using Robots to Unlock
Mysteries of CO2 and the Oceans
As climate change accelerates, scientists are focusing on the key role the world’s oceans play in absorbing half the planet’s carbon dioxide. But the precise mechanisms
Robotic Wave Glider
by which the oceans remove carbon from the atmosphere and the consequences for marine life remain poorly understood. That has led Tracy Villareal, a professor of marine science at the University of Texas at Austin, to devote his research to diatom phytoplankton. To better understand how these tiny organisms mitigate climate change, Villareal has become a pioneer in the use of a wave- and solar-powered ocean-going robot, known as the Wave Glider. In an interview with Yale Environment 360
, Villareal discusses why unlocking the secrets of diatoms is critical to understanding climate change and how deploying robots will revolutionize marine science. “There are all sorts of wild robotic systems under development,” he says. Read the interview.
08 Nov 2013:
Antarctic Researchers Discover
Strips of Rock That Slow Flow of Glaciers
Narrow ribs of dirt and rock beneath Antarctic glaciers help slow the glaciers' flow into the sea, according to new research
from scientists at Princeton University and the British Antarctic Survey. Using satellite measurements of the Pine Island Glacier and Thwaites
Glacier, both in West Antarctica, researchers discovered bands they call "tiger stripes" underlying the glaciers. The stripes serve as zones of friction and prevent sliding, much like non-slip flooring, the researchers report in Science
. Understanding the factors that control the glaciers' flow to the sea is important because their melting contributes significantly to sea level rise. The Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers are particularly important, as together they've contributed about 10 percent of the observed global sea level rise over the past 20 years.
06 Nov 2013:
Disturbed Tropical Forests
Are Slow to Regain Plant Biodiversity
In tropical forests that are regrowing after major disturbances, the ability to store carbon recovers more quickly than plant biodiversity, researchers from the U.K. have found
. However, even after 80 years, recovering forests store less carbon than old-growth
A regrowing tropical forest in Brazil
forests, according to a study published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
This is likely because regenerating forests are often dominated by small, fast-growing trees and it may take centuries for larger trees, which hold more carbon, to become established, according to scientists from the Center for Ecology & Hydrology and Bournemouth University, who studied more than 600 recovering tropical forests. Tree species that are hallmarks of old-growth forests were rare or missing in the regrowing forests, the study showed. Since regenerating forests are often located far from old-growth forests and surrounded by farmland, it may be difficult for animals to move seeds between the forests, which may account for the lower plant biodiversity, researchers said.
01 Nov 2013:
Obama to Sign Order
Calling For Adaptation to Climate Change
President Obama was expected to sign an executive order on Friday
directing federal agencies to make it easier for states and communities to adapt to the rising seas, more intense storms, and droughts that are expected to increase as the planet warms this century. A key aspect of the order aims to ensure that states and local communities take into account likely climate conditions in the future when they spend federal money on projects like roads, bridges, and flood control structures. Critics say that such planning has often been lacking
as the northeastern U.S. rebuilds from Hurricane Sandy. Obama’s executive order also will set up a task force of state and local leaders to advise the federal government on how best to enable local communities to plan for storms, droughts, and disasters as temperatures increase. “All of that is going to be shaped by the awareness of climate change and the things that can be done to make those investments produce a much more resilient society,” said John P. Holdren, the president’s science adviser.
31 Oct 2013:
Smaller Rise in Global CO2
Emissions May Be Sign of Permanent Slowing
Global carbon dioxide emissions grew last year at about half the rate of the past decade, possibly signaling a permanent slowdown of CO2 emissions, says a new report
from the Netherlands Environment Assessment Agency and the European Commission's Joint Research Center. Although total CO2 emissions reached a record 34.5 billion tons, the increase over 2011 was only 1.1 percent — less than half the average rate of increase over the past decade. China, the U.S., and the European Union accounted for 55 percent of global CO2 emissions. China, which emitted 29 percent of total CO2, increased its rate by only 3 percent, a significant slowdown from its average recent growth of 10 percent. The analysts credit the slowdown to China's rapid growth in hydropower
. The U.S. and European Union saw their emissions fall by 4 percent and 1.6 percent, respectively. The report links those declines to increased shale gas use in the U.S. and decreased energy consumption and freight transport in the E.U. Globally, the pace of renewable energy growth has been accelerating, the report said.
29 Oct 2013:
Three Western U.S. States And
British Columbia Sign Climate Agreement
The governors of California, Oregon, and Washington, together with the premier of British Columbia, have signed a pact to coordinate efforts to combat global warming. With a combined GDP of $2.8 trillion and a population of 53 million people, the three states and the Canadian province represent the world's fifth largest economy. The leaders agreed to a dozen actions aimed at curbing greenhouse gas emissions, including streamlining permits for renewable energy projects, improving the electric power grid, supporting more research on ocean acidification, and expanding government purchases of electric vehicles, the San Jose Mercury News reports
. Environmentalists have praised the agreement, but, as Jeremy Carl, an energy policy fellow at Stanford University, noted, "The devil will be in the details, whether they do anything substantive or whether it turns out to be a time-wasting exercise."
25 Oct 2013:
Major Pension Funds Question
Long-Term Outlook for Fossil Fuel Profits
Leaders from some of the largest pension funds in the U.S. and the world are concerned about the future profitability of fossil fuel companies, and they have asked those companies to report on their plans for managing a long-term shift
toward renewable energy. Managers of 70 major pension funds, which together control about $3 trillion in investments, asked 45 of the world's largest coal, oil, gas, and electric power companies to complete the profitability studies by spring. The pension funds are concerned that, because large investments in fossil fuel exploration take decades to recoup, future legislation could limit production or regulate expensive pollution controls that will significantly cut profitability. "The scientific trajectory that we're on is clearly in conflict" with the business strategy of the companies
, Jack Ehnes, the head of the California's State Teachers' Retirement System, told the AP. "We've been pleasantly surprised by the seriousness" of some of the fossil fuel companies, who are "not just blowing us off," a spokesman for the coalition that is coordinating the efforts told the AP.
24 Oct 2013:
Electric Vehicle Sales
On the Rise in 2013, New Analysis Shows
By the end of August, 59,000 electric vehicles had been sold in the U.S. this year — more than during all of 2012, a new report from the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS)
shows. Over the past three years,
Americans purchased more than 140,000 electric vehicles (EVs), which have saved more than 40 million gallons of gas each year, the report notes. California is the leader, with 29 percent of all U.S. plug-in vehicle purchases made this year. EV sales rates have more than doubled in that state over the past year, according to the report. Although East and West coast cities continue to be hotspots for EV sales, purchases are picking up in cities like Denver, St. Louis, and Dallas, the report says
22 Oct 2013:
Southern Amazon Rainforest
In Danger as Dry Season Expands, Study Says
The dry season in the southern part of the Amazon rainforest is lasting three weeks longer than it did 30 years ago, putting the forest at higher risk for fires and tree mortality, according to new research from the University of Texas
. The most likely culprit is global
warming, says lead researcher Rong Fu. Even if future wet seasons become wetter, rainforest soil can only hold so much water, Fu explained. That water must sustain the forest throughout the entire dry season, and as the dry season lengthens the rainforest becomes increasingly stressed, vegetation growth slows, and the risk of fire rises. During a severe drought in 2005, the Amazon actually released a large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, rather than acting as a net carbon sink. Should dry seasons continue to expand, conditions like those in 2005 could become the norm, accelerating the buildup of CO2 in the atmosphere, the researchers wrote in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
21 Oct 2013:
French Utility Company
Agrees to Build Major Nuclear Plant in U.K.
The British government and the French state-controlled utility company, EDF Group, have agreed to build the U.K.'s first nuclear power plant in a generation. The new plant, to be built at Hinkley Point in southwest England, is part of the British government's ongoing efforts to cut carbon emissions in half by the mid-2020s. To meet that goal, the U.K. plans to renew some of its existing nuclear plants and build several new plants to replace aging ones, the New York Times reports
. Once completed, the Hinkley Point nuclear power station will supply 7 percent of the country's electricity — enough to power 6 million homes. Consumers and taxpayers will cover most of the projected £16 ($26 billion) overall cost, but the proposed project is expected to face opposition since EDF will be guaranteed a price of roughly £90 ($145) per megawatt hour for 35 years, a rate that is considerably higher than current electricity costs.
17 Oct 2013:
Animals May Play Significant
Role in Carbon Cycling, Researchers Say
Wildlife may play a more important role in the global carbon cycle than researchers have previously given it credit for, according to a study
from an international group of scientists. Although models generally include
Muskoxen in Alaska
carbon cycling by plants and microbes, they often ignore the ways animals contribute to the process. That's a mistake, says Oswald Schmitz, an ecologist at Yale who led the study, because the actions of wildlife can affect carbon cycling through "indirect multiplier effects." For example, the massive loss of trees in North America triggered by the pine beetle outbreak has caused a net carbon change on scale with British Columbia's current fossil fuel emissions, the researchers reported in Ecosystems
. And in the Arctic, where about 500 gigatons of carbon is stored in permafrost, large grazing mammals like caribou and muskoxen can help maintain the grasslands that have a high albedo and thus reflect more solar energy. "We're not saying that managing animals will offset these carbon emissions," Schmitz said. "What we're trying to say is the numbers are of a scale where it is worthwhile to start thinking about how animals could be managed to accomplish that."
16 Oct 2013:
Climate-Driven Disasters To Keep
Impoverished Populations Poor, Study Says
Extreme weather events driven by climate change will exacerbate poverty in regions where people are already among the world's poorest, according to a study
by the U.K.'s Overseas Development Institute. Where disasters
Floods in Mozambique
such as drought are common, those events are the leading cause of poverty, the authors say, rather than poor health or societal factors. Across the globe, up to 325 million people will be living in countries that face natural hazard risks by 2030, the report says; in sub-Saharan Africa alone, 118 million people in poverty will face extreme events. To brace against the effects of disasters
, aid money should be spent on reducing those risks, rather than only on humanitarian relief after an extreme event, the authors argue. Currently, money tends to flow to a region after a disaster instead of before, when it could be used for prevention. "If the international community are serious about ending extreme poverty, they need to get serious about reducing disaster risk for the poorest people," the institute's Tom Mitchell told the BBC.
14 Oct 2013:
World Ocean Conditions Worse
Than Previously Thought, Analysis Finds
The world's oceans are deteriorating more rapidly than scientists had thought due to rising carbon dioxide levels and associated warming, according to a new analysis
by European scientists. By many indicators, ocean conditions are even worse than outlined last
Sea butterfly without shell
month by the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's assessment report on the physical effects of global warming, the researchers say. Sinking oxygen levels, which could decline by 1 to 7 percent by 2100, increasing ocean acidification, and overfishing of more than 70 percent of marine populations are among the biggest threats to ocean ecosystems, the scientists report in Marine Pollution Bulletin
. Mollusks and other sensitive organisms are increasingly being found with corroded shells, a result of rising dissolved CO2 concentrations; within 20 to 40 years ocean acidity levels may reach the point where coral reefs are eroded faster than they can regenerate, the review said.
10 Oct 2013:
Carbon Capture and Storage
Projects Lagging Worldwide, Study Finds
Major projects aiming at capturing and burying carbon dioxide underground have slowed worldwide, according to a study by the Global CCS Institute in Australia
. Despite the common view among experts that carbon
Otway CCS project, Victoria, Australia
capture and storage (CCS) technologies could play a crucial role in slowing the atmospheric buildup of greenhouse gases, the number of major CCS projects fell from 75 to 65 over the past year. Although the U.S. currently leads the world in CCS projects, most of them involve pumping carbon into old oil wells to stimulate additional oil production. China, the world's largest producer of carbon dioxide, seems poised to become the new leader in CCS, with 12 projects in the works, the study noted. A major hurdle for the growth of CCS has been the lack of investments in projects based on new technologies, the analysts said. CCS technology has so far not proven to be commercially viable, The New York Times