08 Dec 2008: Opinion

Regulators Are Pushing
Bluefin Tuna to the Brink

The international commission charged with protecting the giant bluefin tuna is once again failing to do its job. Its recent decision to ignore scientists’ recommendations for reducing catch limits may spell doom for this magnificent – and endangered – fish.

by carl safina

It’s one of the biggest, fastest, and most beautiful fish in the sea. It has captured the imaginations of people from Homer to Salvador Dali. But end-times loom for the giant bluefin tuna, whose chances of survival were greatly diminished in late November by the international commission charged with its care.

Once again, that body – the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas – refused to take strong action to prevent the runaway overfishing of the giant bluefin tuna in its sole remaining, yet rapidly disappearing, stronghold: the Mediterranean.

One of the sea’s few elite warm-blooded fish, bluefin tuna can reach three-quarters of a ton, swim at highway speeds, migrate across oceans, and visit coasts of distant continents. They’re also the world’s most valued fish (once they’re dead), and therein they hang by the tail.

Too valuable everywhere to be allowed to live anywhere, the giant bluefin tuna may be worth more money to a person who kills one than any other animal on the planet, elephants and rhinos included. A few years ago, a single 444-pound bluefin tuna sold wholesale in Japan for $173,600. One fish.

A 43-nation commission has public-trust management authority and a mandate to conserve. But the International Commission for the

Enlarge image
Tuna swim

Greenpeace
Bluefin tuna can grow to more than 1,000 pounds and migrate the full length of the Atlantic
Conservation of Atlantic Tunas has for its 40-year history merely acted as the fishing industry’s official, tax-funded conglomerate. Think of it as the International Conspiracy to Catch All the Tuna, and its record starts making sense. The commission’s resume on bluefin tuna graphs as plunging populations, down more than half in the Mediterranean and now free-falling, and down more than 90 percent in the west Atlantic.

The increasing rarity of bluefin—and escalating worldwide sushi madness—has only intensified fishing efforts. And as the fish diminish, demand further drives up the price of bluefin meat. As extinction nears, the fishing keeps escalating.

Fishing has already demolished bluefin populations. The last few decades have seen gold-rush bluefin fisheries disappear off Brazil, in the North Sea, and the southwest Pacific. Wherever they still swim, they are aggressively hunted.

Atlantic bluefin breed in only two places: the Mediterranean and Gulf of Mexico. From these two spawning areas they migrate throughout the whole North Atlantic, mingling in many fishing areas. But fish from these two populations do not interbreed; they are separate breeding stocks that, when not breeding, mix in many areas where they’re fished.

Either population could thrive or go extinct. Right now, both are in trouble. European and Mediterranean fishing is out of control. But the fish native to

More From Yale e360

Click below to read more on
oceans and fisheries from
Yale Environment 360.

A Corporate Approach to Rescuing the World’s Fisheries | Carbon’s Burden on the World’s Oceans
the North American side of the ocean are actually faring far worse. Catches reflect these different trajectories. While Europeans are killing almost twice their legal limit, U.S. fishermen are finding only a fraction of the fish they caught just ten years ago. So few fish remain in the west Atlantic’s bluefin population that in the last few years U.S. commercial bluefin fishers have been able to catch less than 15 percent of what they were allowed. In a word: collapse.

So, what did fishery managers just do? As they have for 20 years, they ignored their own scientists. For the east Atlantic and Mediterranean, the scientists had recommended drastic and immediate catch reduction from nearly 30,000 tons annually to 15,000 tons. Yet despite official warnings and calls for a catch ban, the sleepwalking ICCAT commissioners on Nov. 25 set the catch limit nearly half again as high: 22,000 tons. Having by incompetence, greed, and reckless industry interference caused the depletion of this magnificent and commercially important fish, the commissioners agreed to ensure further decline.

Excessive catch limits will ultimately prove self-defeating, yet short-term thinking prevails. For the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic, ICCAT’s managers have allowed fishermen to catch half again what their own scientists recommended. And fishermen have ended up taking double what they’re allowed (the actual catch in 2008 was 61,000 metric tons), making every second bite at the sushi bar illegal.

What else is going on here? "The EU has bankrolled the decimation of bluefin stocks by subsidizing the new large fishing vessels that are responsible for overfishing, to the detriment of certain traditional fishing fleets,” said European Parliament member Raül Romeva, who attended the tuna commission meeting. “When the stocks are gone, the same ship owners who lobbied to overexploit bluefin tuna will come cap in hand for more EU money.”

The U.S. has justifiable indignation over catches on the other side of the ocean. Bluefin tuna originating in the Mediterranean migrate to American fishing grounds, and rampant overfishing on that side of the Atlantic hurts fishing in U.S. waters. So the U.S. has an immediate interest in trying to inject some sanity to the fishing there.

But the U.S. should also have an interest in fixing its own problems at home, too. And it doesn't. The west Atlantic is fished by the U.S., Canada,
Tuna nets
As commercial fishing continues, bluefin populations continue to plummet on both sides of the Atlantic.
Mexico, and Japan. These countries agreed last month to cut the catch limit for the western Atlantic from the current 2,100 metric tons to 1,800 metric tons by the year 2010. Noble, right? No, not at all. Here’s the catch, literally: 1,600 tons. That’s the amount caught by the countries fishing the west Atlantic in 2007, a number that is actually less than what the “limit” will be reduced to two years from now. In other words, the limit is higher than the catch, so it’s not a limit at all. Effectively, it’s catch-as-catch-can. And yet in the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s press release on the tuna commission meeting’s outcome, America praised itself while expressing “extreme disappointment” at Europe. Finger-pointing by the U.S. obscures the fact that its own Gulf-spawning bluefin tuna population is in worse shape than the one spawned in the Mediterranean.

Gulf-spawned fish migrate up the east coast and into Canadian waters, spend about 12 years growing up, and then — if they’re still alive — return to the Gulf as giants to spawn. The NOAA press release highlights Europe’s failings (the dodge-tactic pioneered by U.S. fishermen), and most environmental groups join the chorus. But the fact is: While our last few native giants trickle in to the Gulf of Mexico to breed, our own fisheries agency allows U.S. boats to catch spawning fish. They’re allowed to keep one bluefin per trip while ostensibly fishing for other kinds of fish. But high prices mean the big tuna get targeted. And because they fish with hundreds of hooks and can keep only one bluefin, they kill — and dump — numerous spawners. If one were designing an extermination campaign, it would work just like this.

The World Conservation Union lists west Atlantic bluefin tuna as “critically endangered.” More dithering could doom the population—and for what? This kind of negligent management drives U.S. boats out of business anyway because ultimately the fish population is lost, and everyone loses. The United States could immediately fix this problem. It has full control of the west Atlantic population’s Gulf of Mexico spawning ground. Yet the killing continues, while U.S. fishery managers stonewall all criticism on the matter.

The United States can — and must now — suspend tuna fishing on the bluefin tuna’s U.S. spawning grounds during breeding season. Then we need an Atlantic-wide bluefin tuna fishing moratorium. After years of inaction and continuous decline, letting them spawn free of constant harassment and giving the populations a five-year cease-fire seems the only hope for saving the giant fish.

Conservationists must work to get the west Atlantic bluefin population listed under the Endangered Species Act. Meanwhile, the U.S. should seek legal action against European fishing countries under the Pelly Amendment for undermining the efficacy of officially agreed-to fishing limits. And management of international trade in bluefin tuna should be turned over to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species [CITES], which enacted the ban on ivory that saved Africa’s elephants. After all, it’s the export to Japan that drives this whole bloody mess.

POSTED ON 08 Dec 2008 IN Biodiversity Climate Energy Oceans Policy & Politics Policy & Politics Europe North America North America 

COMMENTS


Great summation Carl. One would think that policy makers would get this logic but they don't. As one person who wants to make a difference I started a social network @ http://www.savethebluefin.com. Here concerned individuals can have a voice. The one part that is missing from this fight is the voice of the public. A groundswell needs to happen here to move stakeholders further. Thanks for posting about this situation as every voice counts.
Posted by John 4 Bluefin on 08 Dec 2008


What a disgrace the ICCAT is. For years, they've favored the interests of the fishing industry over the fish. This time, it looks like they may really be delivering a death sentence for the bluefin.
Posted by Andrew Ruffalo on 11 Dec 2008


With half a century of living, traveling and working throughout the Americas in aquaculture and fisheries, I would say that your call for a ban on longline fishing in the Bluefin spawning grounds during its season is sensible and sufficient in itself to save the species, provided that the water quality is amenable to egg and fry survival, which is most often the problem when harvests are falling in such species.
Your five year moratorium is way over-reaching!
This type of irrational demand is what makes others think that none of your advice should be taken seriously.
Stop asking for the moon, and you will get what you really need to save this species.
Posted by Larry M. Adenl on 22 Dec 2008


Sadly, a five year moratorium may not be enough to save the Blue Fin. We consumers must look long and hard at what species we are threatening-- just by eating them up! I for one have given up sushi and all other tuna products as well.
Posted by Summer Rhodes on 31 Jan 2009


The only people pushing for a five year
moratorium do so for political alarmist
manipulation reasons, and not rebuilding the stock.
It's disgusting to see such immediate, knee-jerk
anti-statements posted after a thoughtful response
based on fifty years of experience. But this is the
Progressive Way - word games and fear, not facts.
How sad that such important issues are used for
mere leftist power politics - no wonder they fold
against the power of corporate interests, they
waste the power of their inherent truth on mindless
spin.
Posted by T. Salles on 11 Feb 2009


Seeing how much a a large tuna goes for here in Japan, it's not surprising that Japanese fisherman would not want to lower the limit. But similar to the whole gas thing, we need to start looking at what is best for everyone and everything rather than our own immediate benefit.
Posted by japanese words on 07 Mar 2009


There are some errors with this article that I would like to point to.

1) The Atlantic bluefin tuna West and East are not listed as critically endangered under IUCN redlist. At the moment is listed a Data defficient.

2) The ivory ban has done little to stop illegal trade and elephants are in danger of going extinct by 2020.



Posted by Juan Vasconselos on 09 Dec 2009


I totally agree. I think the issue should be brought to greater light. Social awareness should be created. Programs must be organized you should also submit press release to get noticed by media and public alike
Posted by submit press release on 25 May 2010


Comments have been closed on this feature.
carl safinaABOUT THE AUTHOR
Carl Safina, a marine biologist, is president of the Blue Ocean Institute, an adjunct professor at Stony Brook University, and a MacArthur Fellow. He is the author of the award-winning books Song of the Blue Ocean and Eye of the Albatross. His last article for Yale e360 focused on the effects of carbon dioxide on oceans.
MORE BY THIS AUTHOR

 
 

RELATED ARTICLES


A Tiny Pacific Nation Takes the
Lead on Protecting Marine Life

Unhappy with how regional authorities have failed to protect fish stocks in the Western Pacific, Palau has launched its own bold initiatives – creating a vast marine sanctuary and conducting an experiment designed to reduce bycatch in its once-thriving tuna fishery.
READ MORE

A Rather Bizarre Bivalve Stirs
Controversy in the Puget Sound

The Asian market for the odd-looking giant clams known as geoducks has spawned a growing aquaculture industry in Washington's Puget Sound. But coastal homeowners and some conservationists are concerned about the impact of these farming operations on the sound’s ecosystem.
READ MORE

In Mexico, Fish Poachers Push
Endangered Porpoises to Brink

China’s lucrative black market for fish parts is threatening the vaquita, the world’s most endangered marine mammal. The porpoises, who live only in the Gulf of California, are getting caught up as bycatch in illegal gill nets and killed.
READ MORE

In Japan, a David vs Goliath
Battle to Preserve Bluefin Tuna

A group of small-scale Japanese fishermen are waging an increasingly public struggle against industrial fishing fleets that are using sonar and huge nets to scoop up massive catches of spawning Pacific bluefin tuna.
READ MORE

On the Internet, Illegal Trade
In Endangered Wildlife Thrives

On eBay and elsewhere on the Internet, illegal wildlife and wildlife parts — from elephant ivory to tiger skins to monkey and crocodile skulls — are being sold. Bringing an end to this illicit activity is proving to be a daunting challenge.
READ MORE

 

MORE IN Opinion


Why U.S. Coal Industry and
Its Jobs Are Not Coming Back

by james van nostrand
President-elect Donald J. Trump has vowed to revive U.S. coal production and bring back thousands of jobs. But it’s basic economics and international concern about climate change that have crushed the American coal industry, not environmental regulations.
READ MORE

How the Attack on Science Is
Becoming a Global Contagion

by christian schwägerl
Assaults on the science behind climate change research and conservation policies are spreading from the U.S. to Europe and beyond. If this wave of “post-fact” thinking triumphs, the world will face a future dominated by pure ideology.
READ MORE

Why We Need a Carbon Tax,
And Why It Won’t Be Enough

by bill mckibben
Putting a price on carbon is an idea whose time has come, with even Big Oil signaling it may drop its long-standing opposition to a carbon tax. But the question is, has it come too late?
READ MORE

Floating Solar: A Win-Win for
Drought-Stricken Lakes in U.S.

by philip warburg
Floating solar panel arrays are increasingly being deployed in places as diverse as Brazil and Japan. One prime spot for these “floatovoltaic” projects could be the sunbaked U.S. Southwest, where they could produce clean energy and prevent evaporation in major man-made reservoirs.
READ MORE

Point/Counterpoint: Should
Green Critics Reassess Ethanol?

by timothy e. wirth and c. boyden gray
Former U.S. Senator Timothy Wirth and former White House Counsel C. Boyden Gray argue that environmental criticisms of corn ethanol are unwarranted and that the amount in gasoline should be increased. In rebuttal, economist C. Ford Runge counters that any revisionist view of ethanol ignores its negative impacts on the environment and the food supply.
READ MORE

The Case Against More Ethanol:
It's Simply Bad for Environment

by c. ford runge
The revisionist effort to increase the percentage of ethanol blended with U.S. gasoline continues to ignore the major environmental impacts of growing corn for fuel and how it inevitably leads to higher prices for this staple food crop. It remains a bad idea whose time has passed.
READ MORE

How Satellites and Big Data
Can Help to Save the Oceans

by douglas mccauley
With new marine protected areas and an emerging U.N. treaty, global ocean conservation efforts are on the verge of a major advance. But to enforce these ambitious initiatives, new satellite-based technologies and newly available online data must be harnessed.
READ MORE

Why Supreme Court’s Action
Creates Opportunity on Climate

by david victor
The U.S. Supreme Court order blocking the Obama administration's Clean Power Plan may have a silver lining: It provides an opportunity for the U.S. to show other nations it has a flexible, multi-faceted approach to cutting emissions.
READ MORE

With Court Action, Obama’s
Climate Policies in Jeopardy

by michael b. gerrard
The U.S. Supreme Court order blocking President Obama’s plan to cut emissions from coal-burning power plants is an unprecedented step and one of the most environmentally harmful decisions ever made by the nation’s highest court.
READ MORE

Beyond the Oregon Protests:
The Search for Common Ground

by nancy langston
Thrust into the spotlight by a group of anti-government militants as a place of confrontation, the Malheur wildlife refuge is actually a highly successful example of a new collaboration in the West between local residents and the federal government.
READ MORE


e360 digest
Yale
Yale Environment 360 is
a publication of the
Yale School of Forestry
& Environmental Studies
.

SEARCH e360



Donate to Yale Environment 360
Yale Environment 360 Newsletter


CONNECT


ABOUT

About e360
Contact
Submission Guidelines
Reprints

E360 en Español

Universia partnership
Yale Environment 360 articles are now available in Spanish and Portuguese on Universia, the online educational network.
Visit the site.


DEPARTMENTS

Opinion
Reports
Analysis
Interviews
Forums
e360 Digest
Podcasts
Video Reports

TOPICS

Biodiversity
Business & Innovation
Climate
Energy
Forests
Oceans
Policy & Politics
Pollution & Health
Science & Technology
Sustainability
Urbanization
Water

REGIONS

Antarctica and the Arctic
Africa
Asia
Australia
Central & South America
Europe
Middle East
North America

e360 VIDEO

“video
A look at how acidifying oceans could threaten the Dungeness crab, one of the most valuable fisheries on the U.S. West Coast.
Watch the video.

e360 MOBILE

Mobile
The latest
from Yale
Environment 360
is now available for mobile devices at e360.yale.edu/mobile.

e360 PHOTO ESSAY

“Alaska
An aerial view of why Europe’s per capita carbon emissions are less than 50 percent of those in the U.S.
View the photos.

e360 VIDEO

“Ashaninka
An indigenous tribe’s deadly fight to save its ancestral land in the Amazon rainforest from logging.
Learn more.

e360 VIDEO

Food waste
An e360 video series looks at the staggering amount of food wasted in the U.S. – a problem with major human and environmental costs.
Watch the video.

e360 VIDEO

Choco rainforest Cacao
Residents of the Chocó Rainforest in Ecuador are choosing to plant cacao over logging in an effort to slow deforestation.
Watch the video.

e360 VIDEO

“video
Tribal people and ranchers join together to stop a project that would haul coal across their Montana land.
Watch the video.

OF INTEREST



Yale