06 Apr 2009: Report

China’s Grand Plans for
Eco-Cities Now Lie Abandoned

Mostly conceived by international architects, China’s eco-cities were intended to be models of green urban design. But the planning was done with little awareness of how local people lived, and the much-touted projects have largely been scrapped.

by christina larson

If all had gone as planned, “the world’s first eco-city,” as press releases billed it back in 2005, would now be well on its way to completion. The visionary project called for a grassy island near the crowded metropolis of Shanghai to be transformed from a marshy backwater into a gleaming community of energy-efficient buildings housing 50,000 people. Waste was to have been recycled as fuel and the waterfronts were to be lined with sleek micro-windmills. The original timetable called for the first phase of construction to be completed by the Shanghai Expo in 2010, enabling the city to showcase its commitment to building a green future. Within 30 years, the planned community, Dongtan, would grow to accommodate half a million people.

Enlarge image
Dongtan
Arup
An artist's rendering of Dongtan, near Shanghai.
Today, almost nothing has been built. Some residents have been moved off the island, many of them becoming cab drivers in bustling Shanghai. Although the project was widely publicized internationally, most locals knew little about it. The political leaders who championed the project were ousted in a corruption scandal, and their successors have allowed construction permits to lapse.

Meanwhile local environmentalists and academics have recently spoken out against the project in the Chinese press, noting that the planned construction site happened to be located on the last extant wetlands outside Shanghai, home to rare migratory birds. A farmer with fields near the project site told a reporter in 2007 that he hadn’t been informed, let alone consulted, about intentions to transform the area. What you will see if you visit the site today, according to Paul French, a Shanghai-based partner in research publisher Access Asia, is that “no construction has occurred there — indeed it's gone backwards as a visitor center previously built is now shut.”

Eco-cities
Yale Environment 360
Highly touted eco-cities in Dongtan and Huangbaiyu have run into trouble.
Dongtan and other highly touted eco-cities across China were meant to be models of sustainable design for the future. Instead they’ve become models of bold visions that mostly stayed on the drawing boards — or collapsed from shoddy implementation. More often than not, these vaunted eco-cities have been designed by big-name foreign architectural and engineering firms who plunged into the projects with little understanding of Chinese politics, culture, and economics — and with little feel for the needs of local residents whom the utopian communities were designed to serve.

“What I have always found amazing about these eco-towns is how seemingly easy it is for people to, first, tout these as a sign of China’s commitment to the environment and then, second, be surprised when things fail,” writes Richard Brubaker, founder and managing director of China Strategic Development Partners.

Shannon May, a Ph.D. candidate in anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley who has studied the troubled eco-city of Huangbaiyu, wrote in comments posted on The Christian Science Monitor’s Web site, “While such highly lauded projects garner fame and money for the foreign firms, and promotions for the local government officials, they leave the population they were supposed to serve behind.”

The Huangbaiyu project sought to transform a small village in northeast China’s Liaoning province into a more energy-efficient community. Part of the vision was to use special hay and pressed-earth bricks for construction. Unfortunately, of the first 42 homes completed in 2006, only a handful were built with the custom bricks. As the magazine Ethical Corporation has reported, cost overruns made the homes unaffordable to many villagers. In other instances, although homes were available, the farmers refused to live in them, complaining that the new yards weren’t large enough to raise animals and sustain a livelihood.

Some of the homes in Huangbaiyu were built with garages, although villagers don’t have cars.
Among the problems besetting the project were “technical inexperience, faulty materials, lack of oversight, and poor communication,” says May, who has studied the site. Oddly, some of the homes were built with garages, although villagers don’t have cars.

While disappointing, these results shouldn’t be surprising. In China, hype comes easy, as foreigners dearly want to believe that anything is possible in this booming country. Initial expectations often aren’t well grounded, and people make easy pronouncements with little familiarity of how things work in China.

In the cases of Dongtan and Huangbaiyu, the stumbling blocks encountered were not inevitable, and lessons for the future can be gleaned in examining the projects’ fate.

Some of the problems are common to high-profile, visionary projects across China. Richard “Tad” Ferris, a Washington, D.C., lawyer for the firm Holland & Knight, explains that there exists in China, especially in Chinese law, an “aspirational culture” rather than a “compliance culture” — meaning that implementation and oversight of regulations and plans frequently fall short of reality. Anyone who has ever walked down the streets of Beijing, where sidewalks slabs with raised bumps for blind pedestrians suddenly veer into open manhole covers, knows that paths paved with progressive intentions can be strewn with peril.

But there’s another side of the story. The most highly publicized eco-cities, including Dongtan and Huangbaiyu, drew upon expertise from some of the most vaunted international architectural and design firms. The vision for an eco-city on the outskirts of Shanghai was first hatched by the international consulting firm McKinsey & Company. The well-regarded UK-based design, engineering, planning, and business consulting firm, Arup, designed what its Web site describes as the “master plan” for Dongtan. In 2005, British Prime Minister Tony Blair even hailed collaboration on Dongtan as a sign of strong U.K.-China relations.

And William McDonough — a U.S. architect, author of Cradle to Cradle, and a celebrated figure in the American green architecture movement — worked on the design of Huangbaiyu, as well as “conceptual plans” for other eco-projects across China.

As Wen Bo, a Beijing-based environmentalist and co-director of Pacific Environment’s China programs, observes: “I know that some very experienced international firms, including a U.K.-based construction company and the American architecture firm of William McDonough, were involved in planning; it seems to me that they should share some of the responsibility for any problems encountered.”

China has become a laboratory for new technology and global talent seeking to realize their futuristic visions.
Like it or not, China has become a workshop for the world, a laboratory for new technology and global talent seeking to realize their futuristic visions. Foreign architects have designed many of Beijing’s most famous architectural landmarks, including the Olympic “Bird's Nest,” “Aquacube,” and CCTV towers. This international spotlight helps explain both the high hopes — and, in this case, great disappointment — connected with these eco-cities. As Wen tellingly notes, these particular projects were always much better known outside China than inside.

The sentiments voiced by McDonough several years ago typified the grand aspirations of the eco-city planners. In a slideshow presentation now available on YouTube, he said, “I will finish by showing you a new city we’re designing for the Chinese government. We’re doing 12 cities for China right now, based on Cradle to Cradle, as templates. Our assignment is to develop protocols for the housing of 400 million people in 12 years …”

Today, with increasingly critical coverage of eco-cities in the press, McDonough’s architecture and community design firm, William McDonough + Partners, is downplaying its involvement in China. According to Kira Gould, the firm’s director of communications, “While we have in the past done some very limited conceptual planning work in China, we are not doing any community design/planning work there at this time.”

Even after problems came to light, Arup continued to promote its involvement in the Dongtan eco-city, although the language of recent press releases and public statements is carefully worded to leave unclear whether the project has been built. A spokesperson from Arup was not available for comment.

So why did these plans not come to fruition?

In the case of Dongtan, as Paul French explains in a podcast posted on the Ethical Corporation web site, one problem was a feud over who would actually fund the project. “Both sides — Arup, on one side, who call themselves the ‘master builders’ of the project — and Shanghai Industrial Investment Corporation (the Chinese government arm that owns the land) —thought the other was going to pay for it. So Arup thought they were brought in on a project that they would then be able to design, the Chinese would build it, and pay them a large amount of money. The Chinese thought that Arup was going to build the project and that they would get themselves a free eco-city.”

A second stumbling block has been the highly politicized nature of the project. When former Shanghai Communist Party chief Chen Liangyu, a well-known backer of the project, was sentenced in 2008 to 18 years in prison for bribery and abuse of power, the process stalled. According to Peggy Liu, chairperson of the Joint U.S.-China Cooperation on Clean Energy, “Dongtan got stuck mainly due to the transition of Shanghai mayors.”

In the case of Huangbaiyu, a lack of understanding of local needs presented problems. So, too, did a lack of sound oversight: no one effectively ensured that plans on paper were consistently translated into projects on the ground. The small plots and mix-up with the eco-bricks are telling examples of the confusion in construction.

Lately, there is more enthusiasm in China for better green building codes than for designing new cities.
In order for a green community to succeed, it not only has to limit carbon emissions but actually be livable — and adapted to local circumstances. Without extensive consultation with local people, it’s a challenge for foreign planners, even with the best of intentions, to understand what is required to transplant a farmer who grew up plowing fields into a city dweller. (One of McDonough’s blueprints, for another planned eco-city in Liuzhou, called for farmers to use rooftop fields, connected by tiny bridges. Whether or not it’s a workable ecological solution, one wonders how well recent transplants from the countryside would tolerate vertiginous crisscrossing between buildings.) This is one reason Brubaker stresses the need for more community consultation and a “locally guided process.”

Other, less-publicized approaches to building eco-cities are now underway in China that so far seem to be making more progress. A partnership between the Singapore government and the local government to build an eco-city near Tianjin looks more promising, in part because money is coming from both sources and the project is expected to earn not only global kudos but money, making a greater level of supervision and follow-through more likely.

On the whole, within China, there has lately been more enthusiasm for expanding green building codes than building new cities from scratch. “Enforceable green building codes, with the designers’ and planners' willingness to follow them, is very important,” says Wen Bo. “Such grand eco-city plans themselves are not eco-friendly.”

POSTED ON 06 Apr 2009 IN Energy Policy & Politics Sustainability Urbanization Asia Europe 

COMMENTS


Thanks for the overview, Christina. As an observer of the eco-city phenomenon, however, my view is that Dongtan example has been grossly over-covered by the media. There are some 40 eco-city projects identified and I am glad you've identified the Singapore-Tianjin project as an alternative. It is promising not only for the reasons identified above, but because the same team that is in charge of the master-planning will also be the same team that is investing in, building, operating and maintaining the eco-city. In other words, long term interests are aligned, and follow-through is more likely. Furthermore, the cultural provenance of Singapore (whose population is three-quarters immigrant Chinese) with China is surely a help.

Some of my writings on my blog,

More on the Singapore-Tianjin project:
http://greenleapforward.com/2008/11/16/creating-a-better-life-a-closer-look-at-the-sino-singapore-tianjin-eco-city-project/

Xiamen City Green Retrofit Project:
http://greenleapforward.com/2008/05/31/xiamen-city-urban-planning-for-climate-change/

A "white paper" on eco-infastructure and implications for eco-city design:
http://greenleapforward.com/2009/02/27/eco-infrastructure-letting-nature-do-the-work/

Posted by Julian @ The Green Leap Forward on 06 Apr 2009


Alt headline: "Central Planning FAIL"
Posted by David Zetland on 07 Apr 2009


Superb write-up, Christina.

I think another problem that lurks beneath the failure of China's eco-cities is the dirty little secret of urban planning. Grand designs for the creation or re-creation of cities tend to fail because they fly in the face of the organic development process that makes cities work.

Long before Brasilia proved that beautiful paper plans do not a metropolis make, Daniel Hudson Burnham and John Nolen discovered (in San Francisco and San Diego, respectively) that most burghers prefer livability and character over someone else's idea of an ideal city.

China's eco-cities are no exception. They are another example of urban planning overreach, an attempt to mesh the fundamental functions of city management with architecture. I'm with Wen Bo: let the planners lay out the streets and the utility grids, and maybe do some zoning. After that, leave it to the architects and property owners.
Posted by David Wolf on 08 Apr 2009


The essay (link below) outlines sensible eco-policy for the U.S. And 'developing' countries such as China and India still have some opportunity left to shortcut the materialistic & monetary path that the U.S. and Europe have blazed, and go directly to healthy de-development.

If green or eco-development isn't affordable, something is wrong with the picture.

www.doingdemocracy.com/De-Developing%20the%20U.S.%20Thru%20Nonviolence.pdf

Posted by Muriel Strand on 08 Apr 2009


Fine article. But quite premature to write these efforts off. Creating a large scale idea, selling it to millions and then getting commitment doesn't necessarily mean that something will bloom.

Creating a green city will have many failures, and there will be many fits and starts.

Instead of embracing fatalism, why not celebrate the successes of the world, and then analyze the failures, and then get back to the drawing board? This article kills the momentum and desire much too early in the process of CREATING A FRIGGIN CITY.
Posted by michael cote on 10 Apr 2009


"Countries such as China and India still have some opportunity left to shortcut the materialistic & monetary path that the U.S. and Europe have blazed, and go directly to healthy de-development."

Just curious Muriel, have you de-developed your lifestyle to that of the average Chinese or Indian? You seem to be very willing to enforce standards of existence upon these people. Am I to understand want to deny them the opportunity to establish a modern and comfortable lifestyle such as that which I assume you enjoy.

I have been to India and China and have seen the way so many are forced to live. It is not pleasant to see people who have just enough to keep alive and would surely perish if any one item were taken away.

I think both these countries have a long way to go and should clean up the way they pollute. the goal should be to have their industry and their pollution control come up to the quality of that of the United States, not to "de-industrialize" them. Study any civilization and you will see that they flourish when there is industrialization. Industrialization allows for education, arts and above all peace. Lack of industrialization leads to ignorance, hunger and war.

De-industrialization is de-civilization. It is the height of arrogant hypocrisy to suggest we should impose destitution on people of another country and deny them the advantages of industrialization when you are the benificiary of the good that comes from industrialization.
Posted by Dahun on 12 Apr 2009


Another example of the idiocy of schooled architects who never talk to or live with people in normal houses.

In a microcosm example of this phenomena I once purchased a house in a cohousing community designed by an architect and a group of university professors. The roofs leaked, the kitchens were unworkable, there was no storage space for bicycles and tools and the wind blew right through them. The actual list of foolish decisions is longer than that. The buildings were not quite unlike functional houses.

Give me a cob house built by a hippie carpenter any day over some architects "vision." I'll be able to live in it and at least I'll be warm and dry.
Posted by Pangolin on 13 Apr 2009


Great article. I just got back from a vacation to China. I visited both Beijing and Shanghai and the tour I was on did talk about the international design groups designing buildings and their plans for the future.

They didn't mention this level of detail about these "green plans."
Posted by Michael Holtzman on 13 Apr 2009


I'm not sure that both these countries have a long way to go and should clean up the way they pollute. They are growing very fast and tries to keep their people. That's all they are doing.
Posted by Dizi izle on 13 Apr 2009


Been living in China for years now — not at all surprised to hear that these plans have been scrapped. There is NO way that China will ever be an eco-friendly country, because they have no respect for the environment here. I go to visit China's most scenic spots, and everywhere I go I see local tourists throwing their garbage everywhere. It's truly disgusting, like visiting Stonehenge and finding it overblown with empty potato chip bags and beer cans.

You have to change the people, first and foremost, and in this country, the momentum is simply too hard to overcome.
Posted by Bonochromatic on 16 Apr 2009


Christina, thanks for writing about this! I've always been intrigued by the eco-city phenomenon. I wrote about it on ResponsibleChina.com and TheCityFix.com.

"Good News and Bad News for China’s Eco-cities"
http://responsiblechina.com/2009/02/05/good-news-and-bad-news-for-chinas-eco-cities/

and

"Is There a Future for Human-Scale Chinese Cities?"
http://thecityfix.com/is-there-a-future-for-human-scale-chinese-cities/

It seems to be one of the biggest barriers to success is a lack of local knowledge and engagement. Why all the outside foreign "help"? What will it take for Chinese companies to take ownership of the issue and develop their own innovations? It'll be interesting to see what happens...
Posted by Erica Schlaikjer on 17 Apr 2009


Good article about the difference between hype and reality.

I've posted a link and review on my blog, 1GreenProduct.com

http://www.1greenproduct.com/2009/05/analysis-best-laid-plans.html
Posted by Aaron Dalton on 02 May 2009


Christina. Outside of the fact that most of these efforts will fail, I thought it was worth pointing out that even if they had succeeded the real impact would have been symbolic at best.

With 5 million buildings left to be built, and another 400 million people to urbanize, these ecotowns are little more than theme parks in a way.

As mentioned above, you need to get the people to be educated and respect the environment, and absent of that you need to create regulations and standards.

Neither of which would have come from Dongtan (successful or not).

R
www.cleanergreenerchina.com
Posted by Greener China on 17 May 2009


Great article. I just got back from a vacation to China. I visited both Beijing and Shanghai and the tour I was on did talk about the international design groups designing buildings and their plans for the future.
Posted by dizi izle on 03 Jul 2009


Very interesting article. It is a shame that this project is falling on the wayside. I have been very hopeful that more and more countries and cities would start incorporating eco-friendly building principals so it is very concerning that this much hyped and anticipated project is not able to follow through. I really hope that we can develop more cost effective ways to build green without sacrificing quality.
Posted by Houston SEO on 08 Jul 2009


Such a shame the Chinese are so centralized in their thinking, this quote sums it up "Mostly conceived by international architects, China’s eco-cities were intended to be models of green urban design. But the planning was done with little awareness of how local people lived, and the much-touted projects have largely been scrapped."

If they could show leadership and flexibility maybe other countries would follow.
Posted by Internet Marketing Consultant on 20 Aug 2009


We need to publicize in China how even in developed countries, we have serious problems that we need to overcome. We have a story of a UN climate activist and a Chinese activist meeting and sharing stories on this very issue.
Posted by Lukisan on 28 Aug 2009


"China has become a laboratory for new technology and global talent seeking to realize their futuristic visions." Well put Christina and it is very true.

Also, we are craving this eco utopia but in reality and as this article shows it not an easy dream come true. Too much damage has already been done and we cannot simply say oh well what it is done is done let's put it behind us and build new cities from scratch.
Posted by sports flooring on 30 Aug 2009


Great article. I just got back from a vacation to China. I visited both Beijing and Shanghai and the tour I was on did talk about the international design groups designing buildings and their plans for the future.
Posted by videolar on 12 Sep 2009


Excellent read.
Thanks for sharing

A lot needs to be done to undo the damage already caused.

People need to be educated to be more responsible about their own actions and the Chinese government needs to be able to support its people.

We have great ideas but it costs too much in both time and money and this is where people start thinking less about the impact of our daily lives on our environment and no scare tactic seems to work
Posted by internet marketing Melbourne on 18 Oct 2009


Great article, Christina

"“What I have always found amazing about these eco-towns is how seemingly easy it is for people to, first, tout these as a sign of China’s commitment to the environment and then, second, be surprised when things fail,” writes Richard Brubaker, founder and managing director of China Strategic Development Partners." Excellent quote by Richard, but I have to say this is not only true for China but it is an universal problem.

These quick solutions will never work, we need to do more than mere lip service in our attempt to combat a rotting planet.

The other side of the coin is the end consumer. People only care about the environment as long as it does not cost them extra financially and does not cause an inconvenience! Sad but true. Only a handful of people are committed to true sustainability..and then there is an extreme group that are so fundamentalist that any attempt by the government and developers to find a solution, ends in a social outcry a protest that just hinders any progress.
Posted by digital radio scanners on 18 Oct 2009


Good as though the article was it didn't hit on the core reason imho that the project failed, which was it was top down change on a vast scale.

Changes in societies which are significant, quick and successful tend to be bottom up rather than top down.

Projects like this are always going to be aspirational and may grab the headlines, but the real green revolution will come in changes which will be piecemeal, subtle, quiet and very effective.
Posted by Sharpe on 26 Oct 2009


A lot needs to be done to undo the damage already caused.

People need to be educated to be more responsible about their own actions and the Chinese government needs to be able to support its people.

We have great ideas but it costs too much in both time and money and this is where people start thinking less about the impact of our daily lives on our environment and no scare tactic seems to work
Posted by blog on 26 Oct 2009


Excellent read. Thanks for sharing. A lot needs to be done to undo the damage already caused.

People need to be educated to be more responsible about their own actions and the Chinese government needs to be able to support its people.

We have great ideas but it costs too much in both time and money and this is where people start thinking less about the impact of our daily lives on our environment and no scare tactic seems to work.

Posted by dizi izle on 29 Oct 2009


Considering the relative youth of Chinese officials' awareness of environmental issues at all, I think it is fair to judge these efforts as their first baby steps in a very uncharted area, so to speak.

When one is used to five-year plans and (misguided by that mode of operation) tries to solve hydration problems by causing a blizzard like it happened just this past weeks, there's obviously a lot of to discover.

Posted by Natalya on 06 Nov 2009


Fantastic read here. I feel regret that this endeavour is no longer being pursued hotly. I've been perhaps over-optimistic that more and more countries and cities would start incorporating eco-friendly building principals so it is very concerning that this much hyped and anticipated project is not often adhered to. Still, there's ample hope for the future.
Posted by Norton 360 Coupon on 12 Nov 2009


Another example of the idiocy of schooled architects who never talk to or live with people in normal houses.

Posted by games on 16 Nov 2009


I tend to think that architects are very selfish and only want to design buildings that make their own portfolios look good. They just don't think about how people live and breath in these spaces. It's the same the world over.

Posted by Christine on 30 Nov 2009


I just recently visited China (Shanghai and Beijing) and amazed how much "green building" initiatives are been introduced over there.

I do think China has the potential to lead in new ways design eco-friendly buildings and further reduce the greenhouse effects and global warming.

Posted by Linda on 30 Nov 2009


Thanks Christina this is a really great read. As China has one of the worlds largest populations I feel that they must lead when this opportunity arises. I really hope that something like this can be a success sooner rather than later in the future.

Posted by Rob on 12 Dec 2009


Good as though the article was it didn't hit on the core reason imho that the project failed, which was it was top down change on a vast scale.

Changes in societies which are significant, quick and successful tend to be bottom up rather than top down.

Projects like this are always going to be aspirational and may grab the headlines, but the real green revolution will come in changes which will be piecemeal, subtle, quiet and very effective.

Posted by Beli Lukisan on 14 Dec 2009


I am living in China at this moment, and it seems that the government here has some really grand vision for the people. But people here is fairly unruly and choose to live by their own ways. How do you expect peasant farmer that openly poop on the road in a busy market place to live in a high-tech eco-city like that? I think it's a failure of marketing, and they what they should do is pay a decent compensation to the farmers for the land, and market the eco-city to the newly rich people in Shanghai and foreigners like us here living in China. I am also highly doubtful there is enough land to plant food in such eco-city without involving high labor intensive farming since you can't exactly run a tractor on top of a building.
Posted by Business Directory on 17 Feb 2010


I share a similar opinion to Christine in the comment section. My opinion is that everyone wants to build up their own personality and the buildings are just for that purpose, being to fit into and "buffing" up their portfolio. Just like the majority of wealthy people, they care about making more money and not caring about individuals.

Posted by Joseph Morris on 15 Apr 2010


A very good article, it shows exactly how political leaders imagine and plan, pure imagination, no connection to reality included. They should start with educating the small people about eco-friendly living rather than waste so much money on at last nothing. But I don´t blame China, every country of our so called eco-friendly Western World has to change its attitude to the environment, too.
Posted by cure for acne on 27 May 2010


Alt headline: "Central Planning FAIL"
Posted by swiss watches on 11 Sep 2010


Fine article. But quite premature to write these efforts off. Creating a large scale idea, selling it to millions and then getting commitment doesn't necessarily mean that something will bloom. Thank you.

Posted by สถานที่ท่องเที่ยว on 15 Oct 2010


i wonder what you mean about in this sentence. Enforceable green building codes, with the designers’ and planners' willingness to follow them, is very important. I can't understand.
Posted by hagia sophia on 15 Nov 2010


Comments have been closed on this feature.
christina larsonABOUT THE AUTHOR
Christina Larson is a journalist focusing on international environmental issues, based in Beijing and Washington, D.C. Her reporting has brought her to seven provinces across China, as well to Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand, and her writing has appeared in The New York Times, The New Republic, and The Washington Monthly, where she is a contributing editor. In previous articles from China for Yale Environment 360, she has written about a Chinese environmentalist's fight to save the Yellow River and a Chinese scientist's efforts to stop a massive government-sponsored water project.
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Biodiversity
Business & Innovation
Climate
Energy
Forests
Oceans
Policy & Politics
Pollution & Health
Science & Technology
Sustainability
Urbanization
Water

REGIONS

Antarctica and the Arctic
Africa
Asia
Australia
Central & South America
Europe
Middle East
North America

e360 PHOTO GALLERY

“Peter
Photographer Peter Essick documents the swift changes wrought by global warming in Antarctica, Greenland, and other far-flung places.
View the gallery.

e360 MOBILE

Mobile
The latest
from Yale
Environment 360
is now available for mobile devices at e360.yale.edu/mobile.

e360 VIDEO

Warriors of Qiugang
The Warriors of Qiugang, a Yale Environment 360 video that chronicles the story of a Chinese village’s fight against a polluting chemical plant, was nominated for a 2011 Academy Award for Best Documentary (Short Subject). Watch the video.


header image
Top Image: aerial view of Iceland. © Google & TerraMetrics.

e360 VIDEO

Colorado River Video
In a Yale Environment 360 video, photographer Pete McBride documents how increasing water demands have transformed the Colorado River, the lifeblood of the arid Southwest. Watch the video.

OF INTEREST



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