26 Apr 2012: Report

Fighting A Last-Ditch Battle
To Save the Rare Javan Rhino

Rhinoceroses worldwide are under siege as their habitat shrinks and poachers slaughter hundreds annually for their valuable horns. Now, in Indonesia, conservation groups are engaged in a desperate struggle to save the last 40 Javan rhinos on earth.

by rhett butler

Trekking through deep mud and sawgrass we find a stinking wallow. The elite rangers, dressed in black despite the tropical heat, mark the site with a GPS unit, measure the mucky puddle’s depth, and move on. This is the first sign of one of the planet’s rarest animals — the Javan rhino. Only 40 or so remain, all in the wild. This patch of rainforest and swamp in Ujung Kulon National Park, on the very tip of West Java in Indonesia, is their last and only refuge.

Until two years ago, that wasn’t the case. A second population of Javan rhinos hung on in Vietnam, a remnant of a species that once ranged widely across Asia. But the Javan rhino in Vietnam was eliminated when poachers gunned down the only individual left in Cat Tien National Park. The poacher got his prize: the rhino’s horn, which in the traditional Chinese medicine market is worth $65,000 per kilogram, more than gold.

The Javan rhino is not alone in its plight. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) rates three of the five remaining species of rhino critically endangered, only one step away from extinction. The Javan

View gallery
WWF Mekong Project Javan Rhino

WWF Mekong Project
A Javan rhino in Vietnam, part of a population that is now extinct.
rhino’s closest relative, the Sumatran rhino in Sumatra and Borneo, also has a tenuous hold, with fewer than 275 believed to exist in the wild. Experts put the likelihood for survival of either species at 50 percent.

The outlook in Africa — home to three species of rhinos, totaling 20,000 individuals — is only slightly brighter. Surging horn prices, boosted by booming middle class demand in Vietnam and China, have reinvigorated the mass slaughter of rhinos. South Africa, home to more than 70 percent of the world’s wild rhinos, lost 448 to poachers last year, a new record. Meanwhile the western black rhino, a sub-species of black rhino, was declared extinct in 2011. It, too, eventually succumbed to poaching.

The pressures driving the demise of rhinos are relentless. Over the long term, habitat loss has been the main culprit, but as their numbers have dwindled, threats to individual populations have diverged. In Africa, where rhinos are distributed across vast savannas and often occupy unprotected or poorly protected lands, demand for rhino horn is the primary threat. But in Southeast Asia, where rhinos cling precariously to existence in relatively well-protected rainforest areas, guarded by rangers, lack of suitable habitat and low population densities are the biggest dangers.

The state of Javan rhinos is especially precarious. Their sole habitat is an area of forest that only exists as a consequence of the massive volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1883; the resulting ash fallout and tsunami killed everyone living in the area that is now Ujung Kulong National Park. Fear of future eruptions left the area uninhabited, allowing forest to regrow and providing the Javan rhino a refuge on an island that is the most densely populated in Indonesia.

Conservationists are working hard to expand the Javan rhino’s habitat. The International Rhino Foundation is working with its local partner, the Rhino Foundation of Indonesia (YABI), and the national park administration to
Sumatran rhinos are spread so thinly that individuals can’t find one another to mate.
extend protected status to some 3,000 hectares of forest adjacent to the park, which has roughly 38,000 hectares of prime rhino habitat. The goal is to boost the population to 70 to 80 rhinos by 2015, roughly double the current number. The effort will not be easy: Rhinos have to compete with colonists encroaching into the area, clearing forests for agriculture and poaching game with snares that endanger non-target species like rhino.

In 2010 and 2011, the park administration, together with the YABI, successfully convinced 70 farmers to abandon fields planted illegally inside the park and move, with compensation, outside park boundaries. Yet incursions into the park by hunters remain a problem. That’s where YABI’s specially trained rhino patrol units step in.

The units, which coordinate with conservation efforts by the park authority, are specifically tasked with protecting and monitoring Javan rhino populations. Working in teams of four, the rangers spend most of their time on foot in the forest. Last year, the teams came across 563 signs of rhinos — feces, wallows, etc. — but only had one direct sighting. Thanks to the unit’s presence, no rhinos were poached in the park, no rhino snares were detected, and no illegal logging took place. The units are mostly staffed by local villagers who provide YABI with a strong understanding of local needs and a useful network of informants on poaching and other illegal activities. Jobs with YABI are well paid and have become a status symbol in some villages, where employment opportunities are limited.

View gallery
Javan Rhino Anti Poaching Ranger Indonesia

Rhett Butler/Mongabay.com
An anti-poaching ranger in Ujong Kulon National Park in Indonesia marks a Javan rhino feeding site with his GPS.
YABI’s rhino protection manager, Muhammad Waladi Isnan, says that developing nature-based tourism that capitalizes on the region’s white sand beaches and stunning coral reefs would help reduce poaching pressure. But even if Javan rhinos are protected from poaching, their survival is by no means assured. Key rhino habitat in Ujung Kulong is losing out to the invasive arenga palm tree, known locally as langkap, which kills off vegetation that forms an important part of the Javan rhino’s diet. YABI is now working with park authorities to eradicate langkap wherever they find it.

The challenges for the Javan rhino’s closest relative are different. While its habitat has been greatly reduced by deforestation and conversion of native grasslands and swamps for agriculture, the chief problem for the Sumatran rhino is its low population density. The species is spread so thinly across Sumatra and northern Borneo that individuals can’t find one another to mate. So conservationists are taking radical measures to bring potential mates together for semi-captive breeding, including a capture of a wild female last year in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. That female has now been relocated to an enclosed area of forest that is home to a male Sumatran rhino.

“The days of leaving Sumatran rhinos in natural habitats and guarding them, hoping that they will not be poached and will breed, are passed,” said John Payne of Borneo Rhino Alliance, which led last year’s operation. “Very few of the remaining rhinos are likely to be fertile. Some of the fertile ones will have no access to a rhino of the opposite sex, because there are almost no rhinos left.”

The hope is that with good protection, adequate habitat, and facilitated match-making, the Sumatran and Javan rhinos can stage a comeback. It’s happened before. In Nepal, Indian rhino populations rebounded to 534 in recent years, thanks to a combination of strict law enforcement and programs that deliver benefits to people living in and around rhino habitats. Last year, not a single rhino in Nepal was lost to poachers.

Meanwhile, the southern white rhinoceros in South Africa narrowly escaped a brush with extinction and now numbers more than 17,000 in the wild. But
‘There are too few rhinos left to survive without bold human intervention,’ says one expert.
despite such success stories, challenges to rhino conservation remain sobering, as evidenced by the sharp uptick in poaching of rhinos in South Africa. One of the biggest obstacles to saving rhinos is the high price for rhino horn, demand for which primarily comes from the market for traditional Chinese medicine, where horn is believed to cure cancer and other ills. Part of the problem is that scarcity — due both to the rarity of rhinos and a ban on legal trade — has driven up the price of horn.

Michael ‘t Sas-Rolfes, a South Africa-based conservation economist and consultant and an expert on the rhino horn trade, believes that a well regulated trade in rhino horn “harvested” from captive rhinos (without killing them) could help depress prices and therefore reduce pressure on wild rhinos. “When retail prices are rising we can typically expect poaching activity to increase,” he writes in an analysis published on his web site, rhino-economics.com. “Similarly, falling retail prices should result in reduced poaching activity.”

But the idea of a legal market in horn is anathema to many conservationists.

“What a ‘legalized’ trade amounts to is encouraging sick people to consume rhino horn instead of seeking medical attention, so that certain parties may profit,” said Rhishja Cota-Larson of Saving Rhinos, a group that works to stop the trade in rhino parts. “Since rhino horn dealers and traders are now marketing it as a cancer cure, this presents a serious ethical issue.”


Against the Odds: Saving
Rhinos in a Troubled Land

Raoul du Toit: Saving Rhinos in a Troubled Land
For three decades, Raoul du Toit has led the fight to protect black rhinos in Zimbabwe, a struggle that earned him a Goldman Environmental Prize in 2011. In an interview with Yale e360, he talked about the challenge of saving this iconic African animal in the face of his country’s economic collapse and a new wave of poaching.
Cota-Larson fears a legal trade in rhino horn wouldn’t stop wild rhino poaching. She believes raising awareness in China and Vietnam is the long-term solution to addressing the rhino horn trade.

But Sas-Rolfes doubts that awareness-raising will ever win over all those who currently use rhino horn, especially when the practice dates back thousands of years and is strongly rooted in cultural beliefs. “Whether rhino horn can be scientifically proven to work as medicine is most likely irrelevant to those who use it,” he writes.

Whether the Javan rhino and other sub-species are part of our future almost certainly now depends on actively creating conditions for their survival. Says Payne of the Borneo Rhino Alliance, “There are too few left to survive without bold human intervention.”       

POSTED ON 26 Apr 2012 IN Biodiversity Forests Asia 


It is very much hoped that the Javan rhino population can reach 60 individuals. When it does, then it will be going beyond the population carrying capacity of Ujong Kulon National Park on the island of Java. This means that they can be reintroduced to Sumatra, which would be nice because the last one on the island of Sumatra was shot in 1928. Vietnam is out of the question, because they do not have adequate protection against poaching.

Posted by Tim Upham on 26 Apr 2012

When rhino population reaches 70 to 80, some of the specimens should be relocated to other locations — Sumatra for example. It's essential for their long term survival. These locations must be strictly monitored and fenced — that's the only way.

They didn't mention that captive breeding programs in zoos proved to be a complete failure.

Posted by tkloszewski on 27 Apr 2012

A number of Javan Rhinos must now be relocated to other sancuaries as well as placed into captivity, as an insurance against extinction. Killing rhinos for their horn(s) DOES NOT, 1 make you look younger 2. make you more fertile 3. free you of demons or, 4. cure typhoid, flu or cancer. It just kills rhinos.

These 4 point should be placed on everyones — Facebook, blogs and Twitter. With great hope for an increase in Rhino numbers, emmanuel Fardoulis, best wishes.

Posted by Emmanuel Fardoulis on 27 Apr 2012

I like that this focused on the Javan but incorporated lots of information and news on rhinos worldwide. It sounds like conservation efforts are actually working in Java, which is so unusual in Indonesia.

Posted by Todd on 27 Apr 2012

Thank you for bringing attention to a species that needs it. The demand has to be stopped in Asia. The fact that rhino horn has no medicinal properties is common knowledge here, due mainly to the recent attention rhino poaching has received. The plight of rhinos needs to be given this much attention in Asia, so the people there that use rhino horn finally "get it".

Posted by Peter Kleinhenz on 30 Apr 2012

Help them!

Posted by manuela wolter on 30 Apr 2012

Does the last rhino have to die before we realise that the death penalty for killing critically endangered animals is warranted, at the very least life imprisonment? What is more valuable to the life form Earth... a living rhino or a poacher? Governments must be moved to impose real economic sanctions on consumer countries.

Posted by Nora Davidson on 06 May 2012

Some countries, particularly Zimbabwe, are trying to counter this barbaric slaughter by de-horning wild rhinos. It's the rhino horns that are desired by the poachers and there's no money for them in killing de-horned rhinos. I hope this approach works and rhino numbers can grow.

Posted by Helmi on 19 May 2012

What can individuals do to help bring awareness to this devasting issue?
Looking for ideas to help make a difference, here in Canada.

Posted by Juanna Thompson on 06 Jun 2012

Agree, unfortunately, the reninmaig Rhino's don't have much time. I have little hope they will survive despite great efforts that are being made in some African countries in particular. The wholesale price in Zimbabwe that the poacher can sell one horn is $2,000, a fortune. By the time it gets to Asia it can sell for $50,000+. If the poacher gets caught it's an automatic 20+ year prison term, but the dealers rarely get caught.

Posted by Auth on 08 Jun 2012

We have to save these magnificent animals.When will people stop killing them for their horns when their is no medicine value in them to cure or aid a problem which usually men think will enhance their sexual prowess. Well, did you not know we have Viagra which does the trick which Rhino horn will never do. Stop killing Rhinos for nothing.

Posted by Carol Watson on 13 Jun 2012

Javan rhino's closest relative is not the Sumatran but the Indian rhino. There are 2 rhino species in Africa, not 3.

Posted by Carlo Castellani on 11 Aug 2012

Thank you for bringing the Javan Rhino's plight to your readers. Something like this doesn't appear on everyone's radar with our busy day to day lives. It may just be another extinction at the hands of men. It is a shame they are killed for their horns and I wish it turns out that they can beat the odds against them. Donate to WWF or another Rhino saving org if you are able.

Posted by Leigh Puzo on 27 Sep 2012

Comments have been closed on this feature.
rhett butlerABOUT THE AUTHOR
Rhett Butler is the founder and editor of Mongabay.com, one of the leading sites on the Web covering tropical forests and biodiversity. In previous articles for Yale Environment 360, he has written about how satellites and GoogleEarth are being used as conservation tools and how sustainable palm oil cultivation could actually help preserve the Amazon.



A Public Relations Drive to
Stop Illegal Rhino Horn Trade

Conservation groups are mounting campaigns to persuade Vietnamese consumers that buying rhino horn is decidedly uncool. But such efforts are likely to succeed only as part of a broader initiative to crack down on an illicit trade that is decimating African rhino populations.

Amid Elephant Slaughter,
Ivory Trade in U.S. Continues

In the last year, the U.S. government and nonprofits have put a spotlight on the illegal poaching of Africa’s elephants and Asia’s insatiable demand for ivory. But the media coverage has ignored a dirty secret: The U.S. has its own large ivory trade that has not been adequately regulated.

Animal ‘Personhood’: Muddled
Alternative to Real Protection

A new strategy of granting animals “personhood” under the law is being advanced by some in academia and the animal rights movement. But this approach fails to address the fundamental truth that all species have an equal right to their own existence.

How Rise of Citizen Science
Is Democratizing Research

New technology is dramatically increasing the role of non-scientists in providing key data for researchers. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Caren Cooper of the Cornell Lab of Ornithology talks about the tremendous benefits — and potential pitfalls — of the expanding realm of citizen science.

Northern Mystery: Why Are
Birds of the Arctic in Decline?

With some species of Arctic birds experiencing steep drops in population and their prey also undergoing marked shifts, scientists are working to understand what role climate change is playing in these unfolding ecological transformations.


MORE IN Reports

A Public Relations Drive to
Stop Illegal Rhino Horn Trade

by mike ives
Conservation groups are mounting campaigns to persuade Vietnamese consumers that buying rhino horn is decidedly uncool. But such efforts are likely to succeed only as part of a broader initiative to crack down on an illicit trade that is decimating African rhino populations.

On Fracking Front, A Push
To Reduce Leaks of Methane

by roger real drouin
Scientists, engineers, and government regulators are increasingly turning their attention to solving one of the chief environmental problems associated with fracking for natural gas and oil – significant leaks of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

Scientists Focus on Polar Waters
As Threat of Acidification Grows

by jo chandler
A sophisticated and challenging experiment in Antarctica is the latest effort to study ocean acidification in the polar regions, where frigid waters are expected to feel most acutely the ecological impacts of acidic conditions not seen in millions of years.

On Ravaged Tar Sands Lands,
Big Challenges for Reclamation

by ed struzik
The mining of Canada’s tar sands has destroyed large areas of sensitive wetlands in Alberta. Oil sands companies have vowed to reclaim this land, but little restoration has occurred so far and many scientists say it is virtually impossible to rebuild these complex ecosystems.

A New Leaf in the Rainforest:
Longtime Villain Vows Reform

by rhett butler
Few companies have done as much damage to the world’s tropical forests as Asia Pulp & Paper. But under intense pressure from its customers and conservation groups, APP has embarked on a series of changes that could significantly reduce deforestation in Indonesia and serve as a model for forestry reform.

In a Host of Small Sources,
Scientists See Energy Windfall

by cheryl katz
The emerging field of “energy scavenging” is drawing on a wide array of untapped energy sources­ — including radio waves, vibrations created by moving objects, and waste heat from computers or car exhaust systems — to generate electricity and boost efficiency.

Life on Mekong Faces Threats
As Major Dams Begin to Rise

by joshua zaffos
With a massive dam under construction in Laos and other dams on the way, the Mekong River is facing a wave of hydroelectric projects that could profoundly alter the river’s ecology and disrupt the food supplies of millions of people in Southeast Asia.

As Fracking Booms, Growing
Concerns About Wastewater

by roger real drouin
With hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas continuing to proliferate across the U.S., scientists and environmental activists are raising questions about whether millions of gallons of contaminated drilling fluids could be threatening water supplies and human health.

In Developing World, A Push to
Bring E-Waste Out of Shadows

by mike ives
For decades, hazardous electronic waste from around the world has been processed in unsafe backyard recycling operations in Asia and Africa. Now, a small but growing movement is seeking to provide these informal collectors with incentives to sell e-waste to advanced recycling facilities.

Growing Insects: Farmers Can
Help to Bring Back Pollinators

by richard conniff
With a sharp decline in pollinating insects, farmers are being encouraged to grow flowering plants that can support these important insects. It’s a fledgling movement that could help restore the pollinators that are essential for world food production.

e360 digest
Yale Environment 360 is
a publication of the
Yale School of Forestry
& Environmental Studies


Donate to Yale Environment 360
Yale Environment 360 Newsletter


Twitter: YaleE360
e360 on Facebook
Donate to e360
View mobile site
Share e360
Subscribe to our newsletter
Subscribe to our feed:


About e360
Submission Guidelines

E360 en Español

Universia partnership
Yale Environment 360 articles are now available in Spanish and Portuguese on Universia, the online educational network.
Visit the site.


e360 Digest
Video Reports


Business & Innovation
Policy & Politics
Pollution & Health
Science & Technology


Antarctica and the Arctic
Central & South America
Middle East
North America


Photographer Peter Essick documents the swift changes wrought by global warming in Antarctica, Greenland, and other far-flung places.
View the gallery.


The latest
from Yale
Environment 360
is now available for mobile devices at e360.yale.edu/mobile.

e360 VIDEO

Warriors of Qiugang
The Warriors of Qiugang, a Yale Environment 360 video that chronicles the story of a Chinese village’s fight against a polluting chemical plant, was nominated for a 2011 Academy Award for Best Documentary (Short Subject). Watch the video.

header image
Top Image: aerial view of Iceland. © Google & TerraMetrics.

e360 VIDEO

Colorado River Video
In a Yale Environment 360 video, photographer Pete McBride documents how increasing water demands have transformed the Colorado River, the lifeblood of the arid Southwest. Watch the video.