10 Dec 2013: Analysis

A Successful Push to Restore
Europe’s Long-Abused Rivers

From Britain to the Czech Republic, European nations have been restoring rivers to their natural state — taking down dams, removing levees, and reviving floodplains. For a continent that long viewed rivers as little more than shipping canals and sewers, it is a striking change.

by fred pearce

From the industrial cities of Britain to the forests of Sweden, from the plains of Spain to the shores of the Black Sea, Europe is restoring its rivers to their natural glory. The most densely populated continent on earth is finding space for nature to return along its river banks.

The restoration is not perfect. River floodplains cannot be fully restored when they contain cities, and hydroelectric dams are still needed. But
Danube River in Germany
Wikimedia Commons
The Danube River as it flows through Kelheim, Germany.
Europe’s fluvial highways are becoming the test bed for conservation biologist Edward O. Wilson’s dream that the 21st century should be "the era of restoration in ecology."

The political imperative is strong, with the 2000 European Union’s Water Framework Directive requiring that all rivers be returned to a "good status" by 2015. The phrase is not defined, but the idea is that rivers should no longer be used as industrial sewers or as canalized and concreted shipping lanes. The change has been dramatic. While water engineers in Europe have been cleansing rivers of pollution for half a century, they now are trying to restore them to something like their natural state.

Britain, for instance, has promised to restore some 1,500 kilometers of rivers. It has 2,700 projects in its National River Restoration Inventory, 1,500 of them already completed. One of Spain’s largest rivers, the Duero,
Some of the most dramatic environmental battles in Europe have been over water engineering projects.
is being cleared of dams and other man-made obstacles. On France’s longest river, the Loire, where two decades ago activists from all over Europe successfully battled to prevent construction of the Serre de la Fare dam near Le Puy, engineers are now tearing down existing dams, such as the Maisons-Rouges. Denmark’s largest river, the Skjern, is getting back some of the marshlands at its mouth, after meanders were reinstated and artificial banks lowered to allow seasonal flooding of arable fields that have now been returned to grass meadows.

For too long, engineers have seen rivers as little more than navigation routes, and pipes to supply water, remove waste, and rush floodwaters to the ocean. Nature was an inconvenience that had to be tamed. But if you pick a fight with nature, you usually lose, as flood engineers from the Mississippi to the Rhine and Danube have learned.

During floods on the Rhine in 1995, levees failed and large parts of the Netherlands at the river’s mouth flooded. The country decided that confronting rivers did not work because, however high you raise the levees, a river in flood will find the weakest spot and burst through. It began instead to set aside land for flooding — to "make room for the river."

That realization, combined with a growing anti-dam movement, has caused big changes in how engineers considered rivers.

Some of the most dramatic environmental battles in Europe have been over water engineering projects, most notably on the Danube. Back in the 1980s, the Soviet-inspired Gabcikovo-Nagymaros project — aimed at improving navigation, preventing flooding, and generating hydropower for Czechoslovakia and Hungary — helped end the Cold War. Massive opposition in Hungary to the Nagymaros dam on a much loved bend in the Danube near Budapest helped cause an upwelling of more general political opposition that eventually brought down the communist government in 1989.

The Danube, which runs west to east, from Germany’s Black Forest to its delta on the Black Sea, is the most international river in the world, with a catchment that includes 19 countries. The river has been cut off from 80
Austria and Germany have been removing levees to restore the floodplain of a tributary of the Danube.
percent of its floodplain. But today much of the floodplain is slated for restoration.

For instance, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Austria are together putting meanders back into a canalized Danube tributary, the Morava River, where NATO forces on one bank once eyed Warsaw Pact forces on the other. Austria and Germany have been removing levees to restore the floodplain of another tributary, the Inn River, at the foot of the Alps. And downstream, Ukraine has taken down levees on two of the largest islands of the Danube delta, Ermakov and Tataru, allowing spring flooding and the return of birdlife and the introduction of free-roaming cattle.

"Until recently, the model for our engineers was to have straight rivers," says Gheorghe Constantin, director of water resources in Romania, another Danube nation. "We kept building levees right up to 2006, when there were huge floods on the Danube. The levees broke. So we decided to leave more space for the river. It was a new model, taken from the Netherlands."

So what, in practice, is meant by river restoration?

In some urban areas, it can mean simply taking some forgotten stream out of a sewer pipe or concrete culvert. In northwest England, the Environment Agency, a government body, is bringing back into the light the Irwell and Medlock, both of which run through Manchester, once the world’s first great industrial city.

Progress is slower In London. Take a trip on the city’s Underground to Sloane Square station and you will find, hanging above the platform, a large green metal conduit that carries what remains of the River Westbourne on its way to the River Thames. London has 20 other lost rivers, including the Westbourne, Fleet, and Tyburn. In Belgium, the Zenne River through Brussels has been a covered sewer for centuries.

Cleaning up famously filthy rivers remains a challenge. "We have been to hell and back on the Thames," says Alastair Driver, of the Environment Agency in England, which has been in charge of the river for two decades. New sewage treatment works brought salmon and other fish back to the tidal Thames, but a growing city population and slow investment have recently put things into reverse. "The river is becoming dirtier again," Driver says. "Around 40 million tons of untreated sewage still goes into the
Restoring rivers requires recreating old channels and meanders and revegetating banks.
river each year. For a few days a year, it becomes disastrous. You can see sewage in the river for 10 kilometers upstream of London Bridge."

After cleaning pollution, bringing back natural flows is next on the restoration checklist. Europe’s water demands on rivers are not so great that they generally run dry. But disruption to their natural hydrology is intense. Dams, weirs, and other barriers proliferate, disrupting fish migrations and changing river flows. Hans Bruyninckx, director of the European Environment Agency, says his agency has counted half a million man-made barriers across rivers in Europe. "That is one every two kilometres."

Restoring rivers also requires recreating old channels and meanders, revegetating banks, and reconnecting rivers with their floodplains. The task is huge. Northern Sweden may appear unpopulated and largely untouched by humans. But, in fact, foresters there straightened and cleared vegetation on huge numbers of rivers between the 1850s and 1970s, so their logs could be floated downstream to ports.

Now those Swedish rivers are being restored. The main technique is dumping trees in the river. "We need large structures — they are very important for slowing down water and trapping organic material," says Johanna Gardestrom, an ecologist at Umea University. "The trees are also food for aquatic insects, which in turn are food for fish."

Another benefit of putting trees back is to keep rivers cool. "Salmon and brown trout die if water temperatures stay above 22 degrees [Celsius] for over seven days," says Rachel Lenane of Britain’s Environment Agency. "With climate change, we are seeing those conditions in southern England now. But trees can cut two degrees off water temperatures, and up to five degrees if there is full cover."

One of the last free-flowing stretches of the upper Danube, between Vienna and Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia, is managed by a new Austrian national park where wardens are restoring lost side channels of the river, as well as riverine forests. "We want to end the fortification of the Danube," said Carl Manzano of the Donau-Auen park authority. "We are taking away concrete and rip-rap so the river can recreate its natural bank. 50,000
Everywhere Europe’s river restorers face practical limits on what they can achieve.
cubic meters of stone structures have come down. Kingfishers are returning, and wild bees and birds like the little ring plover."

But, he admits, full restoration would require much more. Naturally, the river would be braided here, with many channels, he says. But "we have to accept" that may never come back. And hydroelectric dams upstream have lowered the river’s average water level by half a meter since the 1980s.

Everywhere Europe’s river restorers face practical limits on what they can achieve. Ulrich Pulg of Uni Research in Bergen, Norway, estimates that 50 percent of rivers in Germany, 30 percent in Norway and 70 percent in Belgium can never have their ecosystem processes restored. Whole cities would have to move. So the challenge is often to recreate rivers that recognize humanity’s needs.

But while the restorers work out what they can achieve in some areas, they are losing ground in others. Ill-advised engineering projects continue. And to the restorers’ frustration, some are being carried out in the name of the environment.

For example, to fight climate change, hydroelectric power generation is making a comeback in Europe. It is seen by some as the solution to low-carbon energy generation. Sweden already gets more than 40 percent of its power that way, Austria 60 percent, and Norway more than 90 percent.

The latest craze is for small-scale hydro plants, without dams — hundreds of them. The presumption among policymakers is that with no large dams these "run-of-river" schemes have no ecological impact. But Klement Tockner, of the Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology in Berlin, warns


The Ambitious Restoration of
An Undammed Western River

Elwha Dam restoration
With the dismantling of two dams on Washington state’s Elwha River, the world’s largest dam removal project is almost complete. Now, in one of the most extensive U.S. ecological restorations ever attempted, efforts are underway to revive one of the Pacific Northwest’s great salmon rivers.
that their cumulative impact on river flows, as water is diverted through turbines, is becoming significant. "We are seeing huge numbers of small hydropower plants affecting lots of free-flowing rivers, but not delivering much power," he complains.

Most alarming of all, engineers in some countries continue to propose pouring more concrete and chopping down more trees to upgrade flood defenses and protect against coming climate change.

Such is the story in Poland today, where the conservation group WWF has recently revealed a potent mix of European funding and old Stalinist engineering habits that is creating an environmental disaster. Across Poland in the past five years, some 16,000 kilometers of small rural rivers have been "improved" by engineers. Often using EU development money, the rivers have been straightened, fitted with artificial banks, cleared of vegetation, and diverted in the name of flood protection. This "rehabilitation" work has occurred on one third of the nation’s rivers.

The results of this throwback to past engineering practices are often disastrous and rarely of any flood protection benefit, says WWF’s Przemysław Nawrocki. He has published a poster that reads: "Poland will soon be the perfect site for river restoration...because most of its rivers will be destroyed."

That’s the trouble with river restoration. It is, of course, valuable work. But first you have to destroy your river.

POSTED ON 10 Dec 2013 IN Climate Pollution & Health Urbanization Water Water Europe North America 


I live in a French city on a river where sensible efforts have been made at re-naturing the banks.
However, I deplore the fact that those river banks are often littered by yobs. Besides, the river is not clean, as I can watch a lot of plastic bottles and diverse litter floating on the surface. It seems that it is a never-ending battle (with a soaring population in my city) to protect our rivers from pollution.
Posted by 2conservationist on 15 Dec 2013

The population that is polluting rivers is the same population that needs water from those rivers. It is important that the population is educated on the impacts of polluting the rivers.
Posted by Thomas M. MATIASI on 16 Dec 2013

The situation in Poland is more tragic. Officially we have 75,000 km of rivers. Up to 2010, over 40,000 km were regulated. During next three years, due to European co-financing, they regulated another 16,000 km and the rate of regulation is still intensive. We have results: 37 freshwater fish species, of nearly 60, are in different stages of extinction.
Posted by Roman Żurek on 16 Dec 2013

I do not know much about the state of other
European country rivers but I can assure you
that Romania's rivers fare the worse due to this
ill-considered new craze the micro hydro-
electric-power plants and the so called flood
control. What is more frustrating is the fact that all
this is done with European money in the name of
the environment. I always thought that the
environment and clean water agencies had the
same purpose in mind which was to protect
nature but to my utter surprise I found out that
they were specialized in building dams and
levees and dikes and river diversions. Nothing of
this new direction of restoring rivers has
percolated down to my country's decision
makers, they are still engaging in warfare against
nature and natural commonsense pouring billions
down the drain when nature has long figured it
out how to make things run smoothly. Our folks
have invented mountain floodplains, destroying
vital forested areas only to wrest a few hundred
hectares of land from the floodplain. The trade
off is ridiculous and it is hugely detrimental to
nature as well as to any economic commonsense
as these huge dams and levees and dikes are
expensive to build and maintain but it seems
that some people do, indeed, benefit from it and
those are those corrupt officials in charge of
these massive and hugely costly projects that do
more harm than good.
Posted by Teofan Tomescu on 03 Apr 2014


Comments are moderated and will be reviewed before they are posted to ensure they are on topic, relevant, and not abusive. They may be edited for length and clarity. By filling out this form, you give Yale Environment 360 permission to publish this comment.

Email address 
Please type the text shown in the graphic.

Fred Pearce, a Yale Environment 360 contributing writer, gave a keynote presentation at the European River Restoration Conference in Vienna in September. He serves as environmental consultant for New Scientist magazine and is the author of numerous books, including The Land Grabbers. In previous e360 articles, Pearce has examined the debates over how the world might allocate its carbon emissions and over the usefulness of the U.N. climate panel in light of its most recent report.



In Romania, Highway Boom Poses Looming Threat to Bears
Romania, one of Europe’s poorest nations, badly needs a modern highway system. But conservationists warn that unless the movements of wildlife are accommodated, a planned boom in road construction could threaten one of the continent’s last large brown bear populations.

Can Waterless Dyeing Processes
Clean Up the Clothing Industry?

One of the world’s most polluting industries is the textile-dyeing sector, which in China and other Asian nations releases trillions of liters of chemically tainted wastewater. But new waterless dyeing technologies, if adopted on a large scale, could sharply cut pollution from the clothing industry.

As Dairy Farms Grow Bigger,
New Concerns About Pollution

Dairy operations in the U.S. are consolidating, with ever-larger numbers of cows concentrated on single farms. In states like Wisconsin, opposition to some large operations is growing after manure spills and improper handling of waste have contaminated waterways and aquifers.

In New Delhi, A Rough Road
For Bus Rapid Transit Systems

High-speed bus systems in crowded urban areas have taken off from Brazil to China, but introducing this form of mass transit to the teeming Indian capital of New Delhi has proven to be a vexing challenge.

Life on Mekong Faces Threats
As Major Dams Begin to Rise

With a massive dam under construction in Laos and other dams on the way, the Mekong River is facing a wave of hydroelectric projects that could profoundly alter the river’s ecology and disrupt the food supplies of millions of people in Southeast Asia.


MORE IN Analysis

With Fins Off Many Menus,
A Glimmer of Hope for Sharks

by ted williams
For decades, the slaughter of sharks – sought after for their fins and meat – has been staggering. But bans on finning and new attitudes in Asia toward eating shark fin soup are leading to optimism about the future for these iconic ocean predators.

As Extreme Weather Increases,
A Push for Advanced Forecasts

by cheryl katz
With a warmer atmosphere expected to spur an increase in major storms, floods, and other wild weather events, scientists and meteorologists worldwide are harnessing advanced computing power to devise more accurate, medium-range forecasts that could save lives and property.

Could Global Tide Be Starting
To Turn Against Fossil Fuels?

by fred pearce
From an oil chill in the financial world to the recent U.S.-China agreement on climate change, recent developments are raising a question that might once have been considered unthinkable: Could this be the beginning of a long, steady decline for the oil and coal industries?

Can Green Bonds Bankroll
A Clean Energy Revolution?

by marc gunther
To slow global warming, tens of trillions of dollars will need to be spent in the coming decades on renewable energy projects. Some banks and governments are issuing green bonds to fund this transformation, but major questions remain as to whether this financing tool will play a game-changing role.

What Is the Carbon Limit?
That Depends Who You Ask

by fred pearce
Scientists are offering widely varying estimates of how much carbon we can emit into the atmosphere without causing dangerous climate change. But establishing a so-called carbon budget is critical if we are to keep the planet a safe place to live in the coming century.

Beyond Treaties: A New Way of
Framing Global Climate Action

by fred pearce
As negotiators look to next year’s UN climate conference in Paris, there is increasing discussion of a new way forward that does not depend on sweeping international agreements. Some analysts are pointing to Plan B — recasting the climate issue as one of national self-interest rather than global treaties.

Oil Companies Quietly Prepare
For a Future of Carbon Pricing

by mark schapiro and jason scorse
The major oil companies in the U.S. have not had to pay a price for the contribution their products make to climate change. But internal accounting by the companies, along with a host of other signs, suggest that may soon change — though the implications of a price on carbon are far from clear.

Can Carbon Capture Technology
Be Part of the Climate Solution?

by david biello
Some scientists and analysts are touting carbon capture and storage as a necessary tool for avoiding catastrophic climate change. But critics of the technology regard it as simply another way of perpetuating a reliance on fossil fuels.

Mideast Water Wars: In Iraq,
A Battle for Control of Water

by fred pearce
Conflicts over water have long haunted the Middle East. Yet in the current fighting in Iraq, the major dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers are seen not just as strategic targets but as powerful weapons of war.

Peak Coal: Why the Industry’s
Dominance May Soon Be Over

by fred pearce
The coal industry has achieved stunning growth in the last decade, largely due to increased demand in China. But big changes in China’s economy and its policies are expected to put an end to coal’s big boom.

e360 digest
Yale Environment 360 is
a publication of the
Yale School of Forestry
& Environmental Studies


Donate to Yale Environment 360
Yale Environment 360 Newsletter



About e360
Submission Guidelines

E360 en Español

Universia partnership
Yale Environment 360 articles are now available in Spanish and Portuguese on Universia, the online educational network.
Visit the site.


e360 Digest
Video Reports


Business & Innovation
Policy & Politics
Pollution & Health
Science & Technology


Antarctica and the Arctic
Central & South America
Middle East
North America


A three-part series Tainted Harvest looks at the soil pollution crisis in China, the threat it poses to the food supply, and the complexity of any cleanup.
Read the series.


The latest
from Yale
Environment 360
is now available for mobile devices at e360.yale.edu/mobile.

e360 VIDEO

Warriors of Qiugang
The Warriors of Qiugang, a Yale Environment 360 video, chronicles a Chinese village’s fight against a polluting chemical plant. It was nominated for a 2011 Academy Award for Best Documentary Short.
Watch the video.

header image
Top Image: aerial view of Iceland. © Google & TerraMetrics.

e360 VIDEO

Badru's Story
Badru’s Story, winner of the Yale Environment 360 Video Contest, documents the work of African researchers monitoring wildlife in Uganda's remote Bwindi Impenetrable National Park.
Watch the video.