Topic: Biodiversity


A Conservationist Sees Signs of Hope for the World’s Rainforests

Opinion

A Conservationist Sees Signs of Hope for the World’s Rainforests

by rhett butler
After decades of sobering news, a prominent conservationist says he is finally finding reason to be optimistic about the future of tropical forests. Consumer pressure on international corporations and new monitoring technology, he says, are helping turn the tide in efforts to save forests from Brazil to Indonesia.
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Albania’s Coastal Wetlands: <br /> Killing Field for Migrating Birds

Report

Albania’s Coastal Wetlands:
Killing Field for Migrating Birds

by phil mckenna
Millions of birds migrating between Africa and Europe are being illegally hunted on the Balkan Peninsula, with the most egregious poaching occurring in Albania. Conservationists and the European Commission are calling for an end to the carnage.
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Drive to Mine the Deep Sea <br />Raises Concerns Over Impacts

Report

Drive to Mine the Deep Sea
Raises Concerns Over Impacts

by mike ives
Armed with new high-tech equipment, mining companies are targeting vast areas of the deep ocean for mineral extraction. But with few regulations in place, critics fear such development could threaten seabed ecosystems that scientists say are only now being fully understood.
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Electric Power Rights of Way: <br />A New Frontier for Conservation

Report

Electric Power Rights of Way:
A New Frontier for Conservation

by richard conniff
Often mowed and doused with herbicides, power transmission lines have long been a bane for environmentalists. But that’s changing, as some utilities are starting to manage these areas as potentially valuable corridors for threatened wildlife.
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The Case Against a Legal Ivory Trade: It Will Lead to More Killing of Elephants

by mary rice
Proponents of easing the global ban on ivory are ignoring the fact that it was a legal market for ivory that pushed elephants toward extinction only a few decades ago. What’s needed now is not a legal ivory market, but better regulation and enforcement of the existing ban.
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Ivory Trade Debate: Should the <br />International Ban on Ivory Be Lifted?

Point/Counterpoint

Ivory Trade Debate: Should the
International Ban on Ivory Be Lifted?

by john frederick walker
Although most conservationists oppose it, a proposal to allow a partial lifting of the ban on ivory trading would benefit Africa’s elephants. With proper controls and enforcement, a legal trade would choke off demand for illicit ivory and discourage the poaching now decimating the continent's elephant populations.
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True Altruism: Can Humans <br />Change To Save Other Species?

Opinion

True Altruism: Can Humans
Change To Save Other Species?

by verlyn klinkenborg
A grim new census of the world’s dwindling wildlife populations should force us to confront a troubling question: Are humans capable of acting in ways that help other species at a cost to themselves?
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Photo Essay

Cashes Ledge: New England's Underwater Laboratory

A little over 70 miles off the coast of New England, an unusual undersea mountain range, known as Cashes Ledge, rises from the seabed. The area teems with kelp forests, sea sponges, and a wide variety of fish and mollusks — much of it captured by ocean photographer Brian Skerry during dives made earlier this year
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How Norway and Russia Made <br />A Cod Fishery Live and Thrive

Report

How Norway and Russia Made
A Cod Fishery Live and Thrive

by john waldman
The prime cod fishing grounds of North America have been depleted or wiped out by overfishing and poor management. But in Arctic waters, Norway and Russia are working cooperatively to sustain a highly productive — and profitable — cod fishery.
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Peak to Peak: An Intimate Look at <br />The Bighorn Sheep of the Rockies

An E360 Video Contest Award Winner

Peak to Peak: An Intimate Look at
The Bighorn Sheep of the Rockies

The third-place winner of the Yale Environment 360 Video Contest focuses on a herd of bighorn sheep in Montana and features remarkable scenes of lambs as they gambol along the slopes of the northern Rockies. Produced by Jeremy Roberts, the video follows a field biologist as he monitors the sheep and talks about the possible impact of climate change on the animals’ future.
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Interview

How to Make Farm-to-Table
A Truly Sustainable Movement

by diane toomey
Chef Dan Barber says the farm-to-table movement that he helped build has failed to support sustainable agriculture on a large scale. To do that, he says in a Yale Environment 360 interview, we need a new way of looking at diverse crops and the foods we eat.
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Badru’s Story: Early Warnings From <br />Inside an Impenetrable African Forest

E360 Video Contest Award Winner — First Place

Badru’s Story: Early Warnings From
Inside an Impenetrable African Forest

"Badru’s Story," which documents the work of researchers in Uganda’s Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, is the first-place winner of the Yale Environment 360 Video Contest. Filmmakers Benjamin Drummond and Sara Joy Steele trek along with scientist Badru Mugerwa and his team as they monitor the impact of climate change on one of Africa’s most diverse forests and its extraordinary wildlife.
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Fate of the Passenger Pigeon <br />Looms as a Somber Warning

Essay

Fate of the Passenger Pigeon
Looms as a Somber Warning

by joel greenberg
This September 1 marks the 100th anniversary of the death of Martha, the last known passenger pigeon on earth. The extinction of this once-abundant North American bird still stands as a cautionary tale.
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How Drones Are Emerging <br />As Valuable Conservation Tool

Interview

How Drones Are Emerging
As Valuable Conservation Tool

by crystal gammon
Lian Pin Koh believes drones can be a key part of conservation efforts, particularly in remote regions. In a Yale Environment 360 interview, he talks about how his project, ConservationDrones, is promoting the use of drones for everything from counting orangutans to stopping poaching.
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Africa’s Vultures Threatened <br />By An Assault on All Fronts

Report

Africa’s Vultures Threatened
By An Assault on All Fronts

by madeline bodin
Vultures are being killed on an unprecedented scale across Africa, with the latest slaughter perpetrated by elephant poachers who poison the scavenging birds so they won’t give away the location of their activities.
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Why Restoring Wetlands <br />Is More Critical Than Ever

Report

Why Restoring Wetlands
Is More Critical Than Ever

by bruce stutz
Along the Delaware River estuary, efforts are underway to restore wetlands lost due to centuries of human activity. With sea levels rising, coastal communities there and and elsewhere in the U.S. and Europe are realizing the value of wetlands as important buffers against flooding and tidal surges.
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Primate Rights vs Research: <br /> Battle in Colombian Rainforest

Report

Primate Rights vs Research:
Battle in Colombian Rainforest

by chris kraul
A Colombian conservationist has been locked in a contentious legal fight against a leading researcher who uses wild monkeys in his search for a malaria vaccine. A recent court decision that banned the practice is seen as a victory in efforts to restrict the use of monkeys in medical research.
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Scientists Look for Causes of <br />Baffling Die-Off of Sea Stars

Report

Scientists Look for Causes of
Baffling Die-Off of Sea Stars

by eric wagner
Sea stars on both coasts of North America are dying en masse from a disease that kills them in a matter of days. Researchers are looking at various pathogens that may be behind what is known as sea star wasting syndrome, but they suspect that a key contributing factor is warming ocean waters.
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Life on the Mississippi: <br />Tale of the Lost River Shrimp

Dispatch

Life on the Mississippi:
Tale of the Lost River Shrimp

by paul greenberg
The 20th-century re-engineering of the Mississippi River wreaked havoc on natural systems and devastated once-abundant populations of native river shrimp. Biologist Paul Hartfield has focused his work on studying these creatures, which were known for making one of the world’s great migrations.
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How Weeds Could Help Feed <br />Billions in a Warming World

Report

How Weeds Could Help Feed
Billions in a Warming World

by lisa palmer
Scientists in the U.S. and elsewhere are conducting intensive experiments to cross hardy weeds with food crops such as rice and wheat. Their goal is to make these staples more resilient as higher temperatures, drought, and elevated CO2 levels pose new threats to the world’s food supply.
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Interview

Examining How Marine Life
Might Adapt to Acidified Oceans

by elizabeth grossman
In an interview with Yale Environment 360, marine biologist Gretchen Hofmann discusses how well mollusks and other shell-building organisms might evolve to live in increasingly corrosive ocean conditions caused by soaring CO2 emissions.
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Brown Pelicans: A Test Case for <br />The U.S. Endangered Species Act

Dispatch

Brown Pelicans: A Test Case for
The U.S. Endangered Species Act

by ted williams
Brown pelicans were removed from the U.S. Endangered Species List in 2009, in what was considered a major conservation success story. But a recent crash in Pacific Coast populations of sardines, the pelican’s prime food, is posing new threats to these oddly elegant birds.
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Mimicking Nature, New Designs <br />Ease Fish Passage Around Dams

Report

Mimicking Nature, New Designs
Ease Fish Passage Around Dams

by rebecca kessler
Originating in Europe, "nature-like" fishways are now being constructed on some U.S. rivers where removing dams is not an option. Unlike traditional fish ladders, these passages use a natural approach aimed at significantly increasing once-abundant runs of migratory fish.
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In a Troubled African Park, <br />A Battle Over Oil Exploration

Report

In a Troubled African Park,
A Battle Over Oil Exploration

by fred pearce
Congo's Virunga National Park has long been known for its mountain gorillas and for the lawless militias that operate there. But the recent shooting of the park warden and plans to begin oil exploration in the park have sparked concern about the future of this iconic World Heritage Site.
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Mining Showdown in Andes <br />Over Unique Páramo Lands

Report

Mining Showdown in Andes
Over Unique Páramo Lands

by chris kraul
High-altitude neotropical ecosystems known as páramos are increasingly at risk in Colombia and elsewhere in South America as major mining companies seek to exploit rich deposits of gold and other minerals. Such projects, scientists warn, could have serious impacts on critical water supplies.
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Unsustainable Seafood: A New <br />Crackdown on Illegal Fishing

Report

Unsustainable Seafood: A New
Crackdown on Illegal Fishing

by richard conniff
A recent study shows that a surprisingly large amount of the seafood sold in U.S. markets is caught illegally. In a series of actions over the last few months, governments and international regulators have started taking aim at stopping this illicit trade in contraband fish.
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A Public Relations Drive to <br />Stop Illegal Rhino Horn Trade

Report

A Public Relations Drive to
Stop Illegal Rhino Horn Trade

by mike ives
Conservation groups are mounting campaigns to persuade Vietnamese consumers that buying rhino horn is decidedly uncool. But such efforts are likely to succeed only as part of a broader initiative to crack down on an illicit trade that is decimating African rhino populations.
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Will Increased Food Production <br />Devour Tropical Forest Lands?

Analysis

Will Increased Food Production
Devour Tropical Forest Lands?

by william laurance
As global population soars, efforts to boost food production will inevitably be focused on the world’s tropical regions. Can this agricultural transformation be achieved without destroying the remaining tropical forests of Africa, South America, and Asia?
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Rebuilding the Natural World: <br />A Shift in Ecological Restoration

Analysis

Rebuilding the Natural World:
A Shift in Ecological Restoration

by richard conniff
From forests in Queens to wetlands in China, planners and scientists are promoting a new approach that incorporates experiments into landscape restoration projects to determine what works to the long-term benefit of nature and what does not.
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In the Pastures of Colombia, <br />Cows, Crops and Timber Coexist

Analysis

In the Pastures of Colombia,
Cows, Crops and Timber Coexist

by lisa palmer
As an ambitious program in Colombia demonstrates, combining grazing and agriculture with tree cultivation can coax more food from each acre, boost farmers’ incomes, restore degraded landscapes, and make farmland more resilient to climate change.
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A New Leaf in the Rainforest: <br />Longtime Villain Vows Reform

Report

A New Leaf in the Rainforest:
Longtime Villain Vows Reform

by rhett butler
Few companies have done as much damage to the world’s tropical forests as Asia Pulp & Paper. But under intense pressure from its customers and conservation groups, APP has embarked on a series of changes that could significantly reduce deforestation in Indonesia and serve as a model for forestry reform.
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Life on Mekong Faces Threats <br />As Major Dams Begin to Rise

Report

Life on Mekong Faces Threats
As Major Dams Begin to Rise

by joshua zaffos
With a massive dam under construction in Laos and other dams on the way, the Mekong River is facing a wave of hydroelectric projects that could profoundly alter the river’s ecology and disrupt the food supplies of millions of people in Southeast Asia.
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Amid Elephant Slaughter, <br />Ivory Trade in U.S. Continues

Analysis

Amid Elephant Slaughter,
Ivory Trade in U.S. Continues

by adam welz
In the last year, the U.S. government and nonprofits have put a spotlight on the illegal poaching of Africa’s elephants and Asia’s insatiable demand for ivory. But the media coverage has ignored a dirty secret: The U.S. has its own large ivory trade that has not been adequately regulated.
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Growing Insects: Farmers Can <br />Help to Bring Back Pollinators

Report

Growing Insects: Farmers Can
Help to Bring Back Pollinators

by richard conniff
With a sharp decline in pollinating insects, farmers are being encouraged to grow flowering plants that can support these important insects. It’s a fledgling movement that could help restore the pollinators that are essential for world food production.
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Animal ‘Personhood’: Muddled <br />Alternative to Real Protection

Opinion

Animal ‘Personhood’: Muddled
Alternative to Real Protection

by verlyn klinkenborg
A new strategy of granting animals “personhood” under the law is being advanced by some in academia and the animal rights movement. But this approach fails to address the fundamental truth that all species have an equal right to their own existence.
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How Rise of Citizen Science <br />Is Democratizing Research

Interview

How Rise of Citizen Science
Is Democratizing Research

by diane toomey
New technology is dramatically increasing the role of non-scientists in providing key data for researchers. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Caren Cooper of the Cornell Lab of Ornithology talks about the tremendous benefits — and potential pitfalls — of the expanding realm of citizen science.
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Northern Mystery: Why Are <br />Birds of the Arctic in Decline?

Report

Northern Mystery: Why Are
Birds of the Arctic in Decline?

by ed struzik
With some species of Arctic birds experiencing steep drops in population and their prey also undergoing marked shifts, scientists are working to understand what role climate change is playing in these unfolding ecological transformations.
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The Case Against De-Extinction: <br />It’s a Fascinating but Dumb Idea

Point/Counterpoint: Reviving Extinct Species

The Case Against De-Extinction:
It’s a Fascinating but Dumb Idea

by paul r. ehrlich
Even if reviving extinct species is practical, it’s an awful idea. It would take resources away from saving endangered species and their habitats and would divert us from the critical work needed to protect the planet.
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De-Extinction Debate: Should We <br />Bring Back the Woolly Mammoth?

Point/Counterpoint: Reviving Extinct Species

De-Extinction Debate: Should We
Bring Back the Woolly Mammoth?

A group led by futurist Stewart Brand is spearheading a movement to try to use genetic technology to revive extinct species, such as the woolly mammoth and the passenger pigeon. In a Yale Environment 360 debate, Brand makes the case for trying to bring back long-gone species, while biologist Paul R. Ehrlich argues that the idea is ill conceived and morally wrong.
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Urban Nature: How to Foster <br />Biodiversity in World’s Cities

Analysis

Urban Nature: How to Foster
Biodiversity in World’s Cities

by richard conniff
As the world becomes more urbanized, researchers and city managers from Baltimore to Britain are recognizing the importance of providing urban habitat that can support biodiversity. It just may be the start of an urban wildlife movement.
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In Imperiled Forests of Borneo, <br />A Rich Tropical Eden Endures

Report

In Imperiled Forests of Borneo,
A Rich Tropical Eden Endures

by william laurance
In Borneo's Danum Valley — one of the last, untouched forest reserves in a region ravaged by logging and oil palm cultivation — a team of international and Malaysian scientists is fighting to preserve an area of stunning biodiversity.
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Documenting the Swift Change <br />Wrought by Global Warming

Photo Essay

Documenting the Swift Change
Wrought by Global Warming

by peter essick
Photographer Peter Essick has traveled the world documenting the causes and consequences of climate change. In a Yale Environment 360 photo essay, we present a gallery of images Essick took while on assignment in Antarctica, Greenland, and other far-flung locales.
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A North Atlantic Mystery: <br />Case of the Missing Whales

Report

A North Atlantic Mystery:
Case of the Missing Whales

by rebecca kessler
Endangered North Atlantic right whales are disappearing from customary feeding grounds off the U.S. and Canadian coasts and appearing in large numbers in other locations, leaving scientists to wonder if shifts in climate may be behind the changes.
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Canada’s Great Inland Delta: <br />A Precarious Future Looms

Report

Canada’s Great Inland Delta:
A Precarious Future Looms

by ed struzik
The Peace-Athabasca Delta, one of the world’s largest freshwater deltas, is facing major change as rising temperatures, a prolonged drought, and water withdrawals for Alberta’s tar sands industry threaten to increasingly dry out this vast expanse of waterways and wetlands.
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Using Ocean Robots to Unlock <br />Mysteries of CO2 and the Seas

Interview

Using Ocean Robots to Unlock
Mysteries of CO2 and the Seas

by todd woody
Marine phytoplankton are vital in absorbing ever-increasing amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere. In a Yale Environment 360 interview, researcher Tracy Villareal explains how he is using remotely operated robots to better understand how this process mitigates climate change.
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People or Parks: The Human<br /> Factor in Protecting Wildlife

Report

People or Parks: The Human
Factor in Protecting Wildlife

by richard conniff
Recent studies in Asia and Australia found that community-managed areas can sometimes do better than traditional parks at preserving habitat and biodiversity. When it comes to conservation, maybe local people are not the problem, but the solution.
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A Key Mangrove Forest Faces <br />Major Threat from a Coal Plant

The Future of Coal: An e360 Report

A Key Mangrove Forest Faces
Major Threat from a Coal Plant

by jeremy hance
As Bangladesh makes a controversial turn to coal to produce electricity, the construction of a large coal-fired power plant is threatening the fragile ecosystem of the Sundarbans, the world’s largest mangrove forest.
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The Ambitious Restoration of <br />An Undammed Western River

Report

The Ambitious Restoration of
An Undammed Western River

by caroline fraser
With the dismantling of two dams on Washington state’s Elwha River, the world’s largest dam removal project is almost complete. Now, in one of the most extensive U.S. ecological restorations ever attempted, efforts are underway to revive one of the Pacific Northwest’s great salmon rivers.
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Microbiomes at the Roots: <br />A New Look at Forest Ecology

Analysis

Microbiomes at the Roots:
A New Look at Forest Ecology

by richard conniff
With advances in genetic sequencing technology, scientists are now able to readily identify the microbes living in and around the roots of trees. This information is proving to have important implications for everything from tropical forest restoration to climate change planning.
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In Galápagos, An Insidious <br />Threat to Darwin's Finches

Report

In Galápagos, An Insidious
Threat to Darwin's Finches

by elizabeth kolbert
The birds that have come to be known as Darwin's finches have long intrigued students of evolution. But now a parasitic fly introduced to the Galápagos Islands is threatening the future of one or more of these iconic finch species.
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Poaching Pangolins: An Obscure <br />Creature Faces Uncertain Future

Report

Poaching Pangolins: An Obscure
Creature Faces Uncertain Future

by richard conniff
The pangolin does not make headlines the way elephants or rhinos do. But the survival of this uncharismatic, armor-plated animal is being threatened by a gruesome trade in its meat and its scales.
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On a Remote Island, Lessons <br /> In How Ecosystems Function

Analysis

On a Remote Island, Lessons
In How Ecosystems Function

by fred pearce
Transformed by British sailors in the 19th century, Ascension Island in the South Atlantic has a unique tropical forest consisting almost entirely of alien species. Scientists say that what has happened there challenges some basic assumptions about ecosystems and evolution.
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The War on African Poaching: <br /> Is Militarization Doomed to Fail?

Report

The War on African Poaching:
Is Militarization Doomed to Fail?

by adam welz
African countries and private game reserves are engaging in an increasingly sophisticated arms race against poachers, yet the slaughter of elephants and rhinos continues. Some experts argue that the battle must be joined on a far wider front that targets demand in Asia and judicial dysfunction in Africa.
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Should Wolves Stay Protected <br />Under Endangered Species Act?

Opinion

Should Wolves Stay Protected
Under Endangered Species Act?

by ted williams
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has stirred controversy with its proposal to remove endangered species protection for wolves, noting the animals’ strong comeback in the northern Rockies and the Midwest. It’s the latest in the long, contentious saga of wolf recovery in the U.S.
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New Initiatives to Clean Up<br /> The Global Aquarium Trade

Report

New Initiatives to Clean Up
The Global Aquarium Trade

by rebecca kessler
An estimated 30 million fish and other creatures are caught annually to supply the home aquarium market, taking a toll on some reef ecosystems. Now conservationists are working to improve the industry by ending destructive practices and encouraging aquaculture.
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An Economic Boom in Turkey<br /> Takes a Toll on Marine Life

Report

An Economic Boom in Turkey
Takes a Toll on Marine Life

by sulmaan khan
The development-at-any-cost policies of Turkish Prime Minister Recip Tayyip Erdogan — a key factor behind the protests and clashes in Istanbul’s Taksim Square — are also playing a role in the steady decline of the nation’s porpoises, dolphins, and other marine life.
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The Surprising Role of CO2 in<br /> Changes on the African Savanna

Report

The Surprising Role of CO2 in
Changes on the African Savanna

by adam welz
Recent studies show that many of the world’s savannas, including famed southern African landscapes, are experiencing significant change as rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere favor the growth of trees over grasslands.
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Green Highways: New Strategies<br /> To Manage Roadsides as Habitat

Report

Green Highways: New Strategies
To Manage Roadsides as Habitat

by richard conniff
From northern Europe to Florida, highway planners are rethinking roadsides as potential habitat for native plants and wildlife. Scientists say this new approach could provide a useful tool in fostering biodiversity.
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A Plague of Deforestation<br /> Sweeps Across Southeast Asia

Report

A Plague of Deforestation
Sweeps Across Southeast Asia

by daniel drollette
Illegal logging and unchecked economic development are taking a devastating toll on the forests of Vietnam and neighboring countries, threatening areas of biodiversity so rich that 1,700 species have been discovered in the last 15 years alone.
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True Nature: Revising Ideas<br /> On What is Pristine and Wild

Analysis

True Nature: Revising Ideas
On What is Pristine and Wild

by fred pearce
New research shows that humans have been transforming the earth and its ecosystems for millenniums — far longer than previously believed. These findings call into question our notions about what is unspoiled nature and what should be preserved.
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How Mussel Farming Could<br /> Help to Clean Fouled Waters

Report

How Mussel Farming Could
Help to Clean Fouled Waters

by paul greenberg
Along the shores of New York Harbor, scientists are investigating whether this ubiquitous bivalve can be grown in urban areas as a way of cleansing coastal waters of sewage, fertilizers, and other pollutants.
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Will Lead Bullets Finally<br /> Kill Off the California Condor?

Report

Will Lead Bullets Finally
Kill Off the California Condor?

by ted williams
The California condor, the largest bird in North America, was saved from extinction by a captive breeding program that increased its numbers in the wild. But now the condor is facing a new and pernicious threat — the lead from bullets used by game hunters.
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Ginkgo: The Life Story of<br /> The Oldest Tree on Earth

Interview

Ginkgo: The Life Story of
The Oldest Tree on Earth

by roger cohn
Revered for its beauty and its longevity, the ginkgo is a living fossil, unchanged for more than 200 million years. Botanist Peter Crane, who has a written what he calls a biography of this unique tree, talks to Yale Environment 360 about the inspiring history and cultural significance of the ginkgo.
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Declining Bee Populations Pose<br /> A Threat to Global Agriculture

Report

Declining Bee Populations Pose
A Threat to Global Agriculture

by elizabeth grossman
The danger that the decline of bees and other pollinators represents to the world’s food supply was highlighted this week when the European Commission decided to ban a class of pesticides suspected of playing a role in so-called “colony collapse disorder.”
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Blocked Migration: Fish Ladders<br /> On U.S. Dams Are Not Effective

Analysis

Blocked Migration: Fish Ladders
On U.S. Dams Are Not Effective

by john waldman
Fishways on rivers in the U.S. Northeast are failing, with less than 3 percent of one key species making it upriver to their spawning grounds, according to a new study. The researchers’ findings provide a cautionary tale for other nations now planning big dam projects.
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Tracking the Causes of Sharp <br/> Decline of the Monarch Butterfly

Interview

Tracking the Causes of Sharp
Decline of the Monarch Butterfly

by richard conniff
A new census found this winter’s population of North American monarch butterflies in Mexico was at the lowest level ever measured. Insect ecologist Orley Taylor talks to Yale Environment 360 about how the planting of genetically modified crops and the resulting use of herbicides has contributed to the monarchs’ decline.
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The Scientist as Guardian:<br /> A Tool for Protecting the Wild

Analysis

The Scientist as Guardian:
A Tool for Protecting the Wild

by william laurance
An expanding body of evidence shows that the presence of field biologists and their assistants is playing an important part in deterring poaching, illegal logging, and other destructive activities in the world’s parks and wildlife reserves.
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A Leading Marine Biologist<br /> Works to Create a ‘Wired Ocean’

Interview

A Leading Marine Biologist
Works to Create a ‘Wired Ocean’

by ben goldfarb
Stanford University scientist Barbara Block heads a program that has placed satellite tags on thousands of sharks, bluefin tuna, and other marine predators to better understand their life cycles. Now, using data available on mobile devices, she hopes to enlist public support for protecting these threatened creatures.
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Into the Heart of Ecuador’s Yasuni

e360 Video

Into the Heart of Ecuador’s Yasuni

Few places on earth harbor as much biodiversity as Ecuador’s Yasuni Biosphere Reserve, which sits atop vast deposits of oil and now faces intense development pressure. In a Yale Environment 360 video, filmmaker Ryan Killackey travels to the heart of Yasuni with scientists inventorying its stunning wildlife and plants. The researchers hope their work will bolster initiatives to preserve this threatened land.
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Counting Species: What It Says<br /> About Human Toll on Wildlife

Essay

Counting Species: What It Says
About Human Toll on Wildlife

by verlyn klinkenborg
By analyzing mitochondrial DNA, scientists now can make more accurate estimates of the numbers of individual species that existed centuries ago. What does it tell us about our impact on the natural world and about our own future?
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Biodiversity in Logged Forests<br /> Far Higher Than Once Believed

Analysis

Biodiversity in Logged Forests
Far Higher Than Once Believed

by fred pearce
New research shows that scientists have significantly overestimated the damage that logging in tropical forests has done to biodiversity, a finding that could change the way conservationists think about how best to preserve species in areas disturbed by humans.
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Will Reform Finally End The<br /> Plunder of Europe’s Fisheries?

Analysis

Will Reform Finally End The
Plunder of Europe’s Fisheries?

by christian schwägerl
Maria Damanaki, Europe’s crusading fisheries minister, is making major headway in changing a cozy, “old boys” network that over-subsidized the European fishing industry and brought about the severe overfishing of the continent’s marine bounty.
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In Tibet, Change Comes to the<br /> Once-Pristine Roof of the World

Report

In Tibet, Change Comes to the
Once-Pristine Roof of the World

by george schaller
Renowned biologist George Schaller has been traveling to the Tibetan Plateau for nearly three decades, studying its unique wildlife. But with climate change and overgrazing taking a toll on the landscape, he reports, scientists and the Chinese government are working to preserve one of the planet’s wildest places.
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To Catch a Rhino: Capturing<br /> Animals in Order to Save Them

Photo Essay

To Catch a Rhino: Capturing
Animals in Order to Save Them

Six white rhinos were captured recently at a reserve in South Africa for eventual relocation to neighboring Botswana, which has lost its entire rhino population to poaching. E360 contributor Adam Welz joined the operation and produced a photo essay that documents the harrowing process.
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Will Bold Steps Be Needed to<br /> Save Beleaguered Polar Bears?

Report

Will Bold Steps Be Needed to
Save Beleaguered Polar Bears?

by ed struzik
In a new paper, the world’s leading polar bear scientists say the time has come to consider drastic measures to save these iconic animals, including supplemental feeding by humans during ice-free periods and relocating more southerly populations to the High Arctic.
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Mercury’s Silent Toll<br /> On the World’s Wildlife

Analysis

Mercury’s Silent Toll
On the World’s Wildlife

by rebecca kessler
Scientists are only beginning to understand the impacts of mercury contamination on birds, fish, and other wildlife populations. But what they are finding is alarming — even low levels can cause harm, and chronic exposure has unexpected and troubling effects.
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Reviving Europe’s Biodiversity<br /> By Importing Exotic Animals

Report

Reviving Europe’s Biodiversity
By Importing Exotic Animals

by christian schwägerl
Scientists are conducting intriguing — and counterintuitive — experiments at several sites in Germany: Bringing back long-lost herbivores, such as water buffalo, to encourage the spread of native plants that have fared poorly in Europe’s human-dominated landscape.
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The Perils and Rewards of<br /> Protecting Congo’s Gorillas

Interview

The Perils and Rewards of
Protecting Congo’s Gorillas

by christina m. russo
Virunga National Park, home to one of the last remaining populations of mountain gorillas, has witnessed years of war and civil strife. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, the park’s warden describes the lethal threats faced by his rangers and the remarkable survival of the park’s gorillas.
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The Dirty War Against<br /> Africa’s Remaining Rhinos

Report

The Dirty War Against
Africa’s Remaining Rhinos

by adam welz
The killing of rhinoceroses has escalated dramatically, especially in South Africa, which is home to 75 percent of the world’s rhino population. The slaughter is being orchestrated by brazen, highly organized gangs that smuggle the rhinos' horns to black markets in China and Southeast Asia.
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As Myanmar Opens to World,<br /> Fate of Its Forests Is on the Line

Report

As Myanmar Opens to World,
Fate of Its Forests Is on the Line

by charles schmidt
Years of sanctions against Myanmar’s military regime helped protect its extensive wild lands. But as the country’s rulers relax their grip and welcome foreign investment, can the nation protect its forests and biodiversity while embracing development?
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How Fishing Gear is Killing<br /> Whales in the North Atlantic

Report

How Fishing Gear is Killing
Whales in the North Atlantic

by rebecca kessler
Researchers have been documenting the deadly threat that fishing lines and ropes pose to large whales that become entangled in them. Now, new studies are pointing to another disturbing fact: the ensnared whales endure enormous pain and prolonged suffering.
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For Wolves on the Brink,<br /> A Hobbled Recovery Plan

Analysis

For Wolves on the Brink,
A Hobbled Recovery Plan

by caroline fraser
Few creatures in the United States have come as close to extinction as the Mexican wolf, which was wiped out in the U.S. by 1970. Now, scientists and conservationists contend, federal officials are caving into political pressure and failing to implement a legally mandated reintroduction plan.
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In the Land of the Maya,<br /> A Battle for a Vital Forest

Report

In the Land of the Maya,
A Battle for a Vital Forest

by william allen
In Guatemala’s vast Maya Biosphere Reserve, conservation groups are battling to preserve a unique rainforest now under threat from Mexican drug cartels, Salvadoran drug gangs, and Chinese-backed groups illegally logging prime tropical hardwoods.
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How the Web Can Help Identify<br /> Countless Undiscovered Species

Interview

How the Web Can Help Identify
Countless Undiscovered Species

by diane toomey
Taxonomist Quentin Wheeler is calling for a concerted effort to classify the millions of unidentified species in the world. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, he talks about the new field of “cybertaxonomy” and how it is harnessing the Web to speed up the effort to catalog life on earth.
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Shining a Bright Light on<br /> Africa’s Elephant Slaughter

Interview

Shining a Bright Light on
Africa’s Elephant Slaughter

by christina m. russo
Fueled by a rising demand for ivory, the mass killing of African elephants has reached extraordinary levels. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, New York Times reporter Jeffrey Gettleman discusses his in-depth investigation of the deadly ivory trade, which involves the U.S.-backed military forces of several African nations.
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Tracking the Big Snakes<br /> Devouring the Everglades

Interview

Tracking the Big Snakes
Devouring the Everglades

by kevin dennehy
The invasive Burmese python has altered ecosystems in Florida’s Everglades, decimating populations of native animals. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, python expert Michael Dorcas describes the ecological damage these huge snakes have caused and why it will be nearly impossible to get rid of them.
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Easing The Collateral Damage<br /> That Fisheries Inflict on Seabirds

Report

Easing The Collateral Damage
That Fisheries Inflict on Seabirds

by jeremy hance
Two recent studies highlight the harm that industrial fisheries are doing to the world’s seabirds, either by overharvesting the birds’ favorite prey or by drowning birds hooked on longlines. But tighter regulations and innovative technologies are starting to significantly reduce seabird “bycatch,” slashing it by 90 percent in some regions.
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The Imperative of Thinking Big<br /> In Global Conservation Efforts

Interview

The Imperative of Thinking Big
In Global Conservation Efforts

by fen montaigne
In his 12 years as president of the Wildlife Conservation Society, Steven E. Sanderson oversaw major projects in Gabon, Chile, South Sudan, and elsewhere. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Sanderson explains why conservation groups need to better coordinate work across large, human-influenced landscapes and more effectively marshal science to fight their battles.
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Dreaming of a Place<br /> Where the Buffalo Roam

Interview

Dreaming of a Place
Where the Buffalo Roam

by hillary rosner
Former Silicon Valley entrepreneur Sean Gerrity is trying to turn a swath of northeastern Montana into a prairie reserve teeming with herds of bison. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Gerrity talks about the challenges of reclaiming a landscape long dominated by agriculture.
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Linking Twin Extinctions <br />Of Species and Languages

Essay

Linking Twin Extinctions
Of Species and Languages

by verlyn klinkenborg
A recent study noted that most of the 6,900 languages spoken on Earth occur in regions of high biodiversity. These findings point to a strong correlation between biological and linguistic diversity, with languages closely connected to the habitats where they are found.
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Beyond Rio’s Disappointment,<br /> Finding a Path to the Future

Analysis

Beyond Rio’s Disappointment,
Finding a Path to the Future

by fred pearce
The Rio+20 Summit produced a largely meaningless document that failed to address the daunting environmental challenges the world faces. But many at the conference looked to an alternative approach they called “green economics” — using market forces to help nations achieve sustainable development.
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Maya Lin’s Memorial to Vanishing Nature

Interview

Maya Lin’s Memorial to Vanishing Nature

by diane toomey
The designer of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial is now focused on the mass extinction of species, a threat she is highlighting on an interactive Web site. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Maya Lin talks about her “What is Missing” project, which she calls her “last memorial.”
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Looking for Solutions in the<br /> Fight to Preserve Biodiversity

Interview

Looking for Solutions in the
Fight to Preserve Biodiversity

by roger cohn
At the Rio+20 conference this week, conservation biologist Thomas Lovejoy received the prestigious Blue Planet Prize. Before traveling to Brazil, Lovejoy talked with Yale Environment 360 about the loss of biodiversity and about whether it is too late for the world to do something about it.
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A Desperate Effort to <br />Save the Rainforest of Borneo

Report

A Desperate Effort to
Save the Rainforest of Borneo

by rhett butler
The once-magnificent tropical forests of Borneo have been decimated by rampant logging and clearing for oil palm plantations. But in the Malaysian state of Sabah, a top official is fighting to reverse that trend by bringing sustainable forestry to the beleaguered island.
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The Vital Chain: Connecting<br /> The Ecosystems of Land and Sea

Analysis

The Vital Chain: Connecting
The Ecosystems of Land and Sea

by carl zimmer
A new study from a Pacific atoll reveals the links between native trees, bird guano, and the giant manta rays that live off the coast. In unraveling this intricate web, the researchers point to the often little-understood interconnectedness between terrestrial and marine ecosystems.
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Africa’s Ambitious Experiment<br /> To Preserve Threatened Wildlife

Report

Africa’s Ambitious Experiment
To Preserve Threatened Wildlife

by caroline fraser
Five nations in southern Africa are joining together to create a huge conservation area that will extend across their borders and expand critical territory for elephants. But can these new protections reverse decades of decline for area wildlife while also benefiting the people who live there?
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Melting Sea Ice Could Lead<br /> To Pressure on Arctic Fishery

Report

Melting Sea Ice Could Lead
To Pressure on Arctic Fishery

by ed struzik
With melting sea ice opening up previously inaccessible parts of the Arctic Ocean, the fishing industry sees a potential bonanza. But some scientists and government officials have begun calling for a moratorium on fishing in the region until the true state of the Arctic fishery is assessed.
READ MORE

Fighting A Last-Ditch Battle<br /> To Save the Rare Javan Rhino

Report

Fighting A Last-Ditch Battle
To Save the Rare Javan Rhino

by rhett butler
Rhinoceroses worldwide are under siege as their habitat shrinks and poachers slaughter hundreds annually for their valuable horns. Now, in Indonesia, conservation groups are engaged in a desperate struggle to save the last 40 Javan rhinos on earth.
READ MORE

As Threats to Biodiversity Grow,<br /> Can We Save World’s Species?

Analysis

As Threats to Biodiversity Grow,
Can We Save World’s Species?

by lee hannah
With soaring human populations and rapid climate change putting unprecedented pressure on species, conservationists must look to innovative strategies — from creating migratory corridors to preserving biodiversity hotspots — if we are to prevent countless animals and plants from heading to extinction.
READ MORE

In Fight to Save Coral Reefs,<br /> Finding Strategies that Work

Interview

In Fight to Save Coral Reefs,
Finding Strategies that Work

by kevin dennehy
In four decades as a marine biologist, Nancy Knowlton has played a key role in documenting the biodiversity of coral reefs and the threats they increasingly face. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, she assesses the state of the world’s corals and highlights conservation projects that offer hope of saving these irreplaceable ecosystems.
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As Arctic Sea Ice Declines,<br /> Polar Bear Patrol Gets Busy

Report

As Arctic Sea Ice Declines,
Polar Bear Patrol Gets Busy

by ed struzik
Polar bears have long come ashore in Churchill, Manitoba, the self-styled ‘Polar Bear Capital of the World.’ But as summer sea ice steadily disappears in Hudson Bay, bears are being marooned on land for longer periods of time — and that is generating a lot of work for the Polar Bear Alert Team.
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Mysteries of Killer Whales<br /> Uncovered in the Antarctic

Dispatch

Mysteries of Killer Whales
Uncovered in the Antarctic

by fen montaigne
Two of the world’s leading experts on the world’s top marine predator are now in Antarctica, tagging and photographing a creature whose remarkably cooperative hunting behavior and transmission of knowledge across generations may be rivaled only by humans.
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A Vast Canadian Wilderness<br /> Poised for a Uranium Boom

Report

A Vast Canadian Wilderness
Poised for a Uranium Boom

by ed struzik
Canada’s Nunavut Territory is the largest undisturbed wilderness in the Northern Hemisphere. It also contains large deposits of uranium, generating intense interest from mining companies and raising concerns that a mining boom could harm the caribou at the center of Inuit life.
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Monitoring A Grim Rise<br /> In the Illegal Ivory Trade

Interview

Monitoring A Grim Rise
In the Illegal Ivory Trade

by christina m. russo
For two decades, TRAFFIC’s Tom Milliken has tracked the illicit ivory trade that has led to the continued slaughter of Africa’s elephants. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Milliken talks about the recent increase in ivory seizures and the criminal gangs that supply Asia’s black market for ivory.
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A Defender of World’s Whales<br /> Sees Only a Tenuous Recovery

Interview

A Defender of World’s Whales
Sees Only a Tenuous Recovery

by christina m. russo
Biologist Roger Payne played a key role in helping end the wholesale slaughter of whales. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Payne discusses the mysteries of these legendary marine mammals and the threats they continue to face.
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Camera Traps Emerge as<br /> Key Tool in Wildlife Research

Report

Camera Traps Emerge as
Key Tool in Wildlife Research

by jeremy hance
Scientists and conservationists are increasingly relying on heat- and motion-activated camera traps to study rare or reclusive species in remote habitats. And the striking images they provide are proving to be a boon for raising conservation awareness worldwide.
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Northwest Oyster Die-offs Show<br /> Ocean Acidification Has Arrived

Report

Northwest Oyster Die-offs Show
Ocean Acidification Has Arrived

by elizabeth grossman
The acidification of the world’s oceans from an excess of CO2 has already begun, as evidenced recently by the widespread mortality of oyster larvae in the Pacific Northwest. Scientists say this is just a harbinger of things to come if greenhouse gas emissions continue to soar.
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Military Bases Provide Unlikely<br /> Refuge For South’s Longleaf Pine

Report

Military Bases Provide Unlikely
Refuge For South’s Longleaf Pine

by bruce dorminey
The expanses of longleaf pine forest that once covered the southeastern United States have been whittled away to just 3 percent of their original range. But as scientists are discovering, this threatened forest ecosystem has found a sanctuary in an unexpected place — U.S. military installations.
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Can Vulnerable Species<br /> Outrun Climate Change?

Report

Can Vulnerable Species
Outrun Climate Change?

by emma marris
Recent studies shed light on the key question of whether certain species, including slow-moving amphibians, can move swiftly enough to new territories as their old habitats warm. The challenges are formidable, especially if human-caused warming continues at such a rapid rate.
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Killing Wolves: A Product of<br /> Alberta’s Big Oil and Gas Boom

Report

Killing Wolves: A Product of
Alberta’s Big Oil and Gas Boom

by ed struzik
The development of the tar sands and other oil and gas fields in Alberta has carved up the Canadian province's boreal forest, threatening herds of woodland caribou. But rather than protect caribou habitat, officials have taken a controversial step: the large-scale killing of the wolves that prey on the caribou.
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A Rise in Fungal Diseases is<br /> Taking Growing Toll on Wildlife

Report

A Rise in Fungal Diseases is
Taking Growing Toll on Wildlife

by michelle nijhuis
In an increasingly interconnected world, fungal diseases are spreading at an alarming rate and have led to deadly outbreaks in amphibian, bat, and bee populations. And in the last decade, researchers note, some of the most virulent strains have infected people.
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Can Wildlife Corridors<br /> Heal Fragmented Landscapes?

Report

Can Wildlife Corridors
Heal Fragmented Landscapes?

by jim robbins
Conservationists have long called for creating ecological corridors that would enable large mammals and other wildlife to roam more freely across an increasingly developed planet. But now scientists are taking a closer look at just how well these corridors are working and what role they might play in a warming world.
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The Crucial Role of Predators:<br /> A New Perspective on Ecology

Analysis

The Crucial Role of Predators:
A New Perspective on Ecology

by caroline fraser
Scientists have recently begun to understand the vital role played by top predators in ecosystems and the profound impacts that occur when those predators are wiped out. Now, researchers are citing new evidence that shows the importance of lions, wolves, sharks, and other creatures at the top of the food chain.
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A Huge Oil Palm Plantation<br /> Puts African Rainforest at Risk

Report

A Huge Oil Palm Plantation
Puts African Rainforest at Risk

by rhett butler and jeremy hance
As global agricultural companies turn to Africa, a U.S. firm is planning a massive oil palm plantation in Cameroon that it says will benefit local villagers. But critics argue that the project would destroy some of the key remaining forests in the West African nation and threaten species-rich reserves.
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In Berlin, Bringing Bees<br /> Back to the Heart of the City

Report

In Berlin, Bringing Bees
Back to the Heart of the City

by christian schwägerl
In Germany’s capital — and in cities as diverse as Hong Kong and Chicago — raising bees on rooftops and in small gardens has become increasingly popular, as urban beekeepers find they can reconnect with nature and maybe even make a profit.
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Climate Relicts: Seeking Clues<br /> On How Some Species Survive

Report

Climate Relicts: Seeking Clues
On How Some Species Survive

by carl zimmer
In pockets ranging from mountain peaks to bogs, scientists are discovering plants and animals that survived previous eras of climate change. Now, conservation biologists say, these climate “relicts” could shed light on how some species may hang on in the coming centuries.
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The Long Strange Journey<br /> Of Earth’s Traveling Microbes

Analysis

The Long Strange Journey
Of Earth’s Traveling Microbes

by fred pearce
Airborne microbes can travel thousands of miles and high into the stratosphere. Now scientists are beginning to understand the possible role of these microbes — such as bacteria, fungal spores, and tiny algae — in creating clouds, causing rain, spreading disease, and even changing climate.
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On Lake Taihu, China Moves <br />To Battle Massive Algae Blooms

Report

On Lake Taihu, China Moves
To Battle Massive Algae Blooms

by richard stone
For two decades, the once-scenic Lake Taihu in eastern China has been choked with devastating algae blooms that have threatened drinking water for millions. Now, in a move that could provide lessons for other huge lakes worldwide, China is taking steps to restore Taihu’s ecological balance.
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The Unfulfilled Promise of the<br /> World’s Marine Protected Areas

Analysis

The Unfulfilled Promise of the
World’s Marine Protected Areas

by bruce barcott
Biologists and conservationists maintain that establishing marine reserves — areas where fishing is off-limits or severely restricted — offers the best hope for recovery for our overstressed oceans. So why is such a small area of the world's oceans protected?
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In Brazil, Palm Oil Plantations<br /> Could Help Preserve the Amazon

Analysis

In Brazil, Palm Oil Plantations
Could Help Preserve the Amazon

by rhett butler
In recent years, palm oil development in Malaysia and Indonesia has devastated tropical forests there. With Brazil on the verge of its own palm oil boom, can sustainable cultivation of the crop actually help save the rainforest, rather than hastening its destruction?
READ MORE

Using the Power of the Web<br /> To Protect Africa’s Wildlife

Interview

Using the Power of the Web
To Protect Africa’s Wildlife

by christina m. russo
Paula Kahumbu runs a conservation organization with a distinctly 21st-century mission: Posting field blogs from conservationists to attract global support for wildlife protection. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Kahumbu talks about her group’s triumphs and struggles as it battles to preserve Africa’s magnificent animals.
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The World’s Tropical Forests<br /> Are Already Feeling the Heat

Analysis

The World’s Tropical Forests
Are Already Feeling the Heat

by william laurance
Much attention has been paid to how global warming is affecting the world’s polar regions and glaciers. But a leading authority on tropical forests warns that rising temperatures could have an equally profound impact on rainforests and are already taking a toll on some tropical species.
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The Cerrado: Brazil’s Other<br /> Biodiverse Region Loses Ground

Report

The Cerrado: Brazil’s Other
Biodiverse Region Loses Ground

by fred pearce
While Brazil touts its efforts to slow destruction of the Amazon, another biodiverse region of the country is being cleared for large-scale farming. But unlike the heralded rainforest it borders, the loss of the cerrado and its rich tropical savanna so far has failed to attract much notice.
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A Scientist Extols the Value<br /> Of Forests Shaped by Humans

Interview

A Scientist Extols the Value
Of Forests Shaped by Humans

by john carey
Political ecologist Susanna Hecht has incurred the wrath of some conservationists by arguing that the notion of the primeval forest is largely a myth and that disturbed forests play a vital ecological function. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, she makes the case for a “new rurality” that places less emphasis on protected forests and more on the areas where people live.
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As Larger Animals Decline,<br /> Forests Feel Their Absence

Report

As Larger Animals Decline,
Forests Feel Their Absence

by sharon levy
With giant tortoises, elephants, and other fruit-eating animals disappearing from many of the world’s tropical woodlands, forests are suffering from the loss of a key function performed by these creatures: the dispersal of tree seeds. But a new experiment shows that introduced species may be able to fulfill this vital ecological role.
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In Aeolus Cave, A Search for the<br /> Vanishing Bats of the Northeast

Report

In Aeolus Cave, A Search for the
Vanishing Bats of the Northeast

by elizabeth kolbert
When wildlife biologists ventured into a Vermont cave this month, they found disturbing evidence that white-nose syndrome was continuing to take its toll on once-abundant bat populations. But the question remains: What can be done to halt the spread of this still-mysterious ailment?
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Agribusiness Boom Threatens<br /> Key African Wildlife Migration

Report

Agribusiness Boom Threatens
Key African Wildlife Migration

by fred pearce
The Ethiopian region of Gambella is home to Africa’s second-largest mammal migration, with more than a million endangered antelope and other animals moving through its grasslands. But the government has now leased vast tracts to foreign agribusinesses who are planning huge farms on land designated a national park.
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Deep-Sea Mining is Coming:<br /> Assessing the Potential Impacts

Interview

Deep-Sea Mining is Coming:
Assessing the Potential Impacts

by erica westly
Numerous companies are moving ahead rapidly with plans to mine copper, gold, and other minerals near hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. But in an interview with Yale Environment 360, marine biologist Cindy Lee Van Dover warns that without environmental safeguards the unique ecosystems of deep-sea vents could be severely damaged.
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Alien Species Reconsidered:<br /> Finding a Value in Non-Natives

Report

Alien Species Reconsidered:
Finding a Value in Non-Natives

by carl zimmer
One of the tenets of conservation management holds that alien species are ecologically harmful. But a new study is pointing to research that demonstrates that some non-native plants and animals can have beneficial impacts.
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How Fisheries Can Gain From<br /> The Lessons of Sustainable Food

Opinion

How Fisheries Can Gain From
The Lessons of Sustainable Food

by john waldman
As agriculture and energy production have made strides toward becoming more sustainable, the world’s fisheries have lagged behind. But restoring our beleaguered oceans to health will require an emphasis on diversification and conservation — and a more sensible mix of fishing practices.
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In Novel Approach to Fisheries, <br />Fishermen Manage the Catch

Report

In Novel Approach to Fisheries,
Fishermen Manage the Catch

by bruce barcott
An increasingly productive way of restoring fisheries is based on the counter-intuitive concept of allowing fishermen to take charge of their own catch. But the success of this growing movement depends heavily on a strong leader who will look out not only for the fishermen, but for the resource itself.
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A Fierce Advocate for Grizzlies<br /> Sees Warning Signs for the Bear

Interview

A Fierce Advocate for Grizzlies
Sees Warning Signs for the Bear

Doug Peacock has been tireless defender of the Yellowstone grizzly for decades, but he believes the bear may now be facing its toughest threat yet. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Peacock talks about the insect infestation that is destroying a key food source for grizzlies and recalls some of his closest encounters with the bears.
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Massive Outbreak of Jellyfish<br /> Could Spell Trouble for Fisheries

Report

Massive Outbreak of Jellyfish
Could Spell Trouble for Fisheries

by richard stone
The world’s oceans have been experiencing enormous blooms of jellyfish, apparently caused by overfishing, declining water quality, and rising sea temperatures. Now, scientists are trying to determine if these outbreaks could represent a “new normal” in which jellyfish increasingly supplant fish.
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Indonesia’s Corruption Legacy<br /> Clouds a Forest Protection Plan

Analysis

Indonesia’s Corruption Legacy
Clouds a Forest Protection Plan

by rhett butler
Norway and other nations have vowed to invest billions of dollars to help preserve Indonesia’s remaining tropical forests. But can foreign involvement stem the tide of graft and uncontrolled logging that has steadily decimated one of the world’s largest areas of rainforest?
READ MORE

As Shark Slaughter Continues,<br /> A Defender Targets Fin Trade

Interview

As Shark Slaughter Continues,
A Defender Targets Fin Trade

As the economies of China and other Asian nations have boomed, demand for shark fins — a prized delicacy — has soared, leading to severe overfishing of many shark species. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, shark conservationist Sonja Fordham talks about the battle to save one of the world’s most magnificent fish.
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With Tigers Near Extinction,<br /> A Last-Ditch Strategy Emerges

Report

With Tigers Near Extinction,
A Last-Ditch Strategy Emerges

by caroline fraser
In the past century, populations of wild tigers have plummeted from 100,000 to 3,500. Now the World Bank and conservationists have launched an eleventh-hour effort to save this great predator, focusing on reining in the black market for tiger parts and ending the destruction of tiger habitat.
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In War-Scarred Landscape,<br /> Vietnam Replants Its Forests

Report

In War-Scarred Landscape,
Vietnam Replants Its Forests

by mike ives
With large swaths of forest destroyed by wartime defoliants, and even larger areas lost to post-war logging, Vietnam has set an ambitious goal for regenerating its woodlands. But proponents of reintroducing native tree species face resistance from a timber industry that favors fast-growing exotics like acacia.
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Hatch-22: The Problem with<br /> The Pacific Salmon Resurgence

Report

Hatch-22: The Problem with
The Pacific Salmon Resurgence

by bruce barcott
The number of salmon in the Pacific Ocean is twice what it was 50 years ago. But there is a downside to this bounty, as growing numbers of hatchery-produced salmon are flooding the Pacific and making it hard for threatened wild salmon species to find enough food to survive.
READ MORE

What Are Species Worth?<br /> Putting a Price on Biodiversity

Opinion

What Are Species Worth?
Putting a Price on Biodiversity

by richard conniff
When officials gather for an international summit on biodiversity next month, they might look to remind the world why species matter to humans: for producing oxygen, finding new drugs, making agricultural crops more productive, and something far less tangible — a sense of wonder.
READ MORE

A Troubling Decline in the<br /> Caribou Herds of the Arctic

Report

A Troubling Decline in the
Caribou Herds of the Arctic

by ed struzik
Across the Far North, populations of caribou — an indispensable source of food and clothing for indigenous people — are in steep decline. Scientists point to rising temperatures and a resource-development boom as the prime culprits.
READ MORE

New Hope for Pavlovsk Station<br /> And Russia’s Rare Plant Reserve

Report

New Hope for Pavlovsk Station
And Russia’s Rare Plant Reserve

by fred pearce
In the early 20th century, Russian botanist Nikolai Vavilov created a preserve outside St. Petersburg that today contains one of the world’s largest collections of rare seeds and crops. Now, scientists and conservationists are waging an international campaign to save the reserve’s fields from being bulldozed for housing development.
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In Scotland’s Search for Roots, <br />A Push to Restore Wild Lands

Report

In Scotland’s Search for Roots,
A Push to Restore Wild Lands

by caroline fraser
As Scotland asserts its identity and its autonomy, environmentalists are working to restore its denuded landscape – planting native forests, creating wildlife corridors, and reintroducing species that were wiped out centuries ago.
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A Steady, Steep Decline for<br /> The Lowly, Uncharismatic Eel

Report

A Steady, Steep Decline for
The Lowly, Uncharismatic Eel

by james prosek
The freshwater eel, which spawns in the middle of the ocean, was once abundant in much of the world. But the proliferation of dams, coastal development, and overfishing have drastically reduced eel populations, with few defenders coming to the aid of these fascinating — though still not fully understood — creatures.
READ MORE

A Looming Oxygen Crisis and<br /> Its Impact on World’s Oceans

Analysis

A Looming Oxygen Crisis and
Its Impact on World’s Oceans

by carl zimmer
As warming intensifies, scientists warn, the oxygen content of oceans across the planet could be more and more diminished, with serious consequences for the future of fish and other sea life.
READ MORE

Enlisting Endangered Species<br /> As a Tool to Combat Warming

Report

Enlisting Endangered Species
As a Tool to Combat Warming

by todd woody
Environmentalists in the U.S. are increasingly trying to use the Endangered Species Act to ease the impact of global warming on numerous animals and plants, including the American pika. The goal is not only to protect the habitat of at-risk species but also to force reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.
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For Hudson Bay Polar Bears,<br /> The End is Already in Sight

Interview

For Hudson Bay Polar Bears,
The End is Already in Sight

The polar bear has long been a symbol of the damage wrought by global warming, but now biologist Andrew Derocher and his colleagues have calculated how long one southerly population can hold out. Their answer? No more than a few decades, as the bears’ decline closely tracks that of the Arctic’s disappearing sea ice.
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As Madagascar is Plundered,<br /> A Staunch Defender Fights Back

Interview

As Madagascar is Plundered,
A Staunch Defender Fights Back

by steven kotler
Primatologist Patricia Wright has spent the past 25 years studying — and protecting — Madagascar’s rich yet highly threatened biodiversity. Now, as many of the island’s remaining forests are being felled in the wake of a 2009 coup, Wright describes how she is helping organize the local residents and international conservation organizations to fight back.
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Under Threat in the Gulf,<br /> A Refuge Created by Roosevelt

Report

Under Threat in the Gulf,
A Refuge Created by Roosevelt

by douglas brinkley
Among the natural treasures at risk from the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the Breton National Wildlife Refuge, created by Theodore Roosevelt to halt a grave threat to birds in his era — the lucrative trade in plumage. Now, oil from the BP spill is starting to wash up on beaches where Roosevelt once walked.
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As Pharmaceutical Use Soars,<br /> Drugs Taint Water and Wildlife

Report

As Pharmaceutical Use Soars,
Drugs Taint Water and Wildlife

by sonia shah
With nearly $800 billion in drugs sold worldwide, pharmaceuticals are increasingly being released into the environment. The “green pharmacy” movement seeks to reduce the ecological impact of these drugs, which have caused mass bird die-offs and spawned antibiotic-resistant pathogens.
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The Natural World Vanishes:<br /> How Species Cease To Matter

Analysis

The Natural World Vanishes:
How Species Cease To Matter

by john waldman
Once, on both sides of the Atlantic, fish such as salmon, eels, and, shad were abundant and played an important role in society, feeding millions and providing a livelihood for tens of thousands. But as these fish have steadily dwindled, humans have lost sight of their significance, with each generation accepting a diminished environment as the new norm.
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What’s Killing the Great<br /> Forests of the American West?

Report

What’s Killing the Great
Forests of the American West?

by jim robbins
Across western North America, huge tracts of forest are dying off at an extraordinary rate, mostly because of outbreaks of insects. Scientists are now seeing such forest die-offs around the world and are linking them to changes in climate.  
READ MORE

After Two Decades of Delay,<br /> A Chance to Save Bluefin Tuna

Opinion

After Two Decades of Delay,
A Chance to Save Bluefin Tuna

by carl safina
The obscenely profitable market for bluefin tuna in Japan has led to years of overfishing and left the world’s bluefin population badly depleted. A ban on the bluefin trade, if adopted at international talks this month, would go a long way toward giving this magnificent fish a chance to recover.
READ MORE

A New Strategy for Saving<br /> The World’s Wild Big Cats

Interview

A New Strategy for Saving
The World’s Wild Big Cats

Populations of many of the world’s wild cats are plummeting, with the number of tigers falling to roughly 3,200. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Alan Rabinowitz, a leading wild cat biologist, lays out a vision of how populations of these magnificent creatures can be brought back from the brink.
READ MORE

Network Theory: A Key to<br /> Unraveling How Nature Works

Analysis

Network Theory: A Key to
Unraveling How Nature Works

by carl zimmer
In the last two decades, network theory has emerged as a way of making sense of everything from the World Wide Web to the human brain. Now, as ecologists have begun applying this theory to ecosystems, they are gaining insights into how species are interconnected and how to foster biodiversity.
READ MORE

Why Africa’s National Parks<br /> Are Failing to Save Wildlife

Opinion

Why Africa’s National Parks
Are Failing to Save Wildlife

by fred pearce
The traditional parks model of closing off areas and keeping people out simply may not work in Africa, where human demands on the land are great. Instead, what’s needed is an approach that finds ways to enable people and animals to co-exist.
READ MORE

 Behind Mass Die-Offs,<br /> Pesticides Lurk as Culprit

Report

Behind Mass Die-Offs,
Pesticides Lurk as Culprit

by sonia shah
In the past dozen years, three new diseases have decimated populations of amphibians, honeybees, and — most recently — bats. Increasingly, scientists suspect that low-level exposure to pesticides could be contributing to this rash of epidemics.
READ MORE

Madagascar’s Political Chaos<br /> Threatens Conservation Gains

Report

Madagascar’s Political Chaos
Threatens Conservation Gains

by rhett butler
Since the government's collapse after a coup last March, Madagascar's rainforests have been plundered for their precious wood and unique wildlife. But now there are a few encouraging signs, as officials promise a crackdown on illegal logging and ecotourists begin to return to the island.
READ MORE

Courting Controversy with<br /> a New View on Exotic Species

Report

Courting Controversy with
a New View on Exotic Species

by greg breining
A number of biologists are challenging the long-held orthodoxy that alien species are inherently bad. In their contrarian view, many introduced species have proven valuable and useful and have increased the diversity and resiliency of native ecosystems.
READ MORE

In Japan’s Managed Landscape,<br /> a Struggle to Save the Bears

Report

In Japan’s Managed Landscape,
a Struggle to Save the Bears

by winifred bird
Although it is a heavily urbanized nation, fully two-thirds of Japan remains woodlands. Yet many of the forests are timber plantations inhospitable to wildlife, especially black bears, which are struggling to survive in one of the most densely populated countries on Earth.
READ MORE

The Spread of New Diseases<br /> and the Climate Connection

Report

The Spread of New Diseases
and the Climate Connection

by sonia shah
As humans increasingly encroach on forested lands and as temperatures rise, the transmission of disease from animals and insects to people is growing. Now a new field, known as “conservation medicine,” is exploring how ecosystem disturbance and changing interactions between wildlife and humans can lead to the spread of new pathogens.
READ MORE

The Growing Specter of<br /> Africa Without Wildlife

Report

The Growing Specter of
Africa Without Wildlife

by richard conniff
Recent studies show that wildlife in some African nations is declining even in national parks, as poaching increases and human settlements hem in habitat. With the continent expected to add more than a billion people by 2050, do these trends portend an Africa devoid of wild animals?
READ MORE

Controlling the Ranching Boom<br /> that  Threatens the Amazon

Report

Controlling the Ranching Boom
that Threatens the Amazon

by rhett butler
Clearing land for cattle is responsible for 80 percent of rainforest loss in the Brazilian Amazon. But with Amazon ranching now a multi-billion dollar business, corporate buyers of beef and leather, including Wal-Mart, are starting to demand that the destruction of the forest be halted.
READ MORE

First Comes Global Warming,<br /> Then an Evolutionary Explosion

Report

First Comes Global Warming,
Then an Evolutionary Explosion

by carl zimmer
In a matter of years or decades, researchers believe, animals and plants already are adapting to life in a warmer world. Some species will be unable to change quickly enough and will go extinct, but others will evolve, as natural selection enables them to carry on in an altered environment.
READ MORE

A Total Ban on Whaling?<br /> New Studies May Hold the Key

Opinion

A Total Ban on Whaling?
New Studies May Hold the Key

by fred pearce
As the International Whaling Commission debates whether to ban all whaling or to expand the limited hunts now underway, recent research has convinced some scientists that the world’s largest mammal should never be hunted again.
READ MORE

Climate Threat to Polar Bears:<br /> Despite Facts, Doubters Remain

Analysis

Climate Threat to Polar Bears:
Despite Facts, Doubters Remain

by ed struzik
Wildlife biologists and climate scientists overwhelmingly agree that the disappearance of Arctic sea ice will lead to a sharp drop in polar bear populations. But some skeptics remain unconvinced, and they have managed to persuade the Canadian government not to take key steps to protect the animals.
READ MORE

With the Clearing of Forests,<br /> Baby Orangutans Are Marooned

Report

With the Clearing of Forests,
Baby Orangutans Are Marooned

by rhett butler
As Borneo's rain forests are razed for oil palm plantations, wildlife centers are taking in more and more orphaned orangutans and preparing them for reintroduction into the wild. But the endangered primates now face a new threat — there is not enough habitat where they can be returned.
READ MORE

Previous Eras of Warming<br /> Hold Warnings for Our Age

Interview

Previous Eras of Warming
Hold Warnings for Our Age

by carl zimmer
By 2100, the world will probably be hotter than it’s been in 3 million years. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, paleoecologist Anthony D. Barnosky describes the unprecedented challenges that many species will face in this era of intensified warming.audio
READ MORE

As Climate Warms, Species <br />May Need to Migrate or Perish

Report

As Climate Warms, Species
May Need to Migrate or Perish

by carl zimmer
With global warming pushing some animals and plants to the brink of extinction, conservation biologists are now saying that the only way to save some species may be to move them.
READ MORE

Satellites and Google Earth<br /> Prove Potent Conservation Tool

Report

Satellites and Google Earth
Prove Potent Conservation Tool

by rhett butler
Armed with vivid images from space and remote sensing data, scientists, environmentalists, and armchair conservationists are now tracking threats to the planet and making the information available to anyone with an Internet connection.
READ MORE

Twenty Years Later, Impacts<br />  of the Exxon Valdez Linger

Report

Twenty Years Later, Impacts
of the Exxon Valdez Linger

by doug struck
Two decades after the Exxon Valdez spilled 11 million gallons of crude oil into Alaska’s waters, the Prince William Sound, its fishermen, and its wildlife have still not fully recovered.
READ MORE

Analysis

With Temperatures Rising,
Here Comes ‘Global Weirding’

by john waldman
They’re calling it “global weirding” – the way in which rising temperatures are causing species to change their ranges, the timing of their migrations, and the way they interact with other living things. And the implications of all this are only beginning to be understood.
READ MORE

Finding New Species:<br /> The Golden Age of Discovery

Report

Finding New Species:
The Golden Age of Discovery

by bruce stutz
Aided by new access to remote regions, researchers have been discovering new species at a record pace — 16,969 in 2006 alone. The challenge now is to preserve threatened ecosystems before these species, and others yet unknown, are lost.
READ MORE

Laos Emerges as Key Source <br />in Asia’s Illicit Wildlife Trade

Report

Laos Emerges as Key Source
in Asia’s Illicit Wildlife Trade

by rhett butler
Long an isolated land with abundant forests and biodiversity, Laos is rapidly developing as China and other Asian nations exploit its resources. One of the first casualties has been the wildlife, now being rapidly depleted by a thriving black-market trade.
READ MORE

The Cost of the Biofuel Boom:<br /> Destroying Indonesia’s Forests

Report

The Cost of the Biofuel Boom:
Destroying Indonesia’s Forests

by tom knudson
The clearing of Indonesia’s rain forest for palm oil plantations is having profound effects – threatening endangered species, upending the lives of indigenous people, and releasing massive amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
READ MORE

As Rain Forests Disappear,<br /> A Market Solution Emerges

Report

As Rain Forests Disappear,
A Market Solution Emerges

by rhett butler
Despite the creation of protected areas in the Amazon and other tropical regions, rain forests worldwide are still being destroyed for a simple reason: They are worth more cut down than standing. But with deforestation now a leading driver of global warming, a movement is growing to pay nations and local people to keep their rain forests intact.
READ MORE

Regulators Are Pushing<br /> Bluefin Tuna to the Brink

Opinion

Regulators Are Pushing
Bluefin Tuna to the Brink

by carl safina
The international commission charged with protecting the giant bluefin tuna is once again failing to do its job. Its recent decision to ignore scientists’ recommendations for reducing catch limits may spell doom for this magnificent – and endangered – fish.
READ MORE

What’s Killing<br/> the Tasmanian Devil?

Report

What’s Killing
the Tasmanian Devil?

by david quammen
Scientists have been trying to identify the cause of a cancer epidemic that is wiping out Australia’s Tasmanian devils. Now new research points to an alarming conclusion: because of the species’ low genetic diversity, the cancer is contagious and is spreading from one devil to another.
READ MORE

A Corporate Approach to <br />Rescuing the World’s Fisheries

Report

A Corporate Approach to
Rescuing the World’s Fisheries

by nicholas day
The commitment by Wal-Mart, McDonald’s, and other major companies to buy only sustainably-caught seafood is an encouraging sign in an otherwise bleak global fisheries picture. After decades of government inaction and ineffective consumer campaigns, corporate pressure may finally be starting to turn the tide on reckless overfishing.
READ MORE

Saving the Seeds of the<br /> Next Green Revolution

Analysis

Saving the Seeds of the
Next Green Revolution

by fred pearce
With food prices skyrocketing and climate change looming, the world needs a green revolution like the one a generation ago. But many valuable seed varieties have been lost – and scientists now are scrambling to protect those that remain before they vanish down the genetic drain.
READ MORE

Alaska’s Pebble Mine:<br /> Fish Versus Gold

Report

Alaska’s Pebble Mine:
Fish Versus Gold

by bill sherwonit
With the support of Gov. Sarah Palin, mining interests have defeated an Alaska ballot measure that could have blocked a huge proposed mining project. Now, plans are moving forward to exploit the massive gold and copper deposit at Bristol Bay, home of one of the world’s greatest salmon runs.
READ MORE

As Energy Prices Rise, <br />the Pressure to Drill Builds

Opinion

As Energy Prices Rise,
the Pressure to Drill Builds

by eugene linden
President Bush is urging Congress to open the U.S. coasts and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil and gas drilling. But America must ultimately wean itself off fossil fuels. The question is whether it makes the transition now — or waits until every last one of its unspoiled places has been drilled.
READ MORE

Global Commodities Boom <br />Fuels New Assault on Amazon

Report

Global Commodities Boom
Fuels New Assault on Amazon

by rhett butler
With soaring prices for agricultural goods and new demand for biofuels, the clearing of the world's largest rain forest has accelerated dramatically. Unless forceful measures are taken, half of the Brazilian Amazon could be cut, burned or dried out within 20 years.
READ MORE

Biodiversity in the Balance

Analysis

Biodiversity in the Balance

by carl zimmer
Paleontologists and geologists are looking to the ancient past for clues about whether global warming will result in mass extinctions. What they're finding is not encouraging.
READ MORE

Analysis

Carbon’s Burden on the World’s Oceans

by carl safina and marah j. hardt
The burgeoning amount of carbon dioxide in oceans is affecting a lot more than coral reefs. It is also damaging marine life and, most ominously, threatening the future survival of marine populations.
READ MORE

Russia’s Lake Baikal: Preserving a Natural Treasure

Report

Russia’s Lake Baikal: Preserving a Natural Treasure

by peter thomson
The world's greatest lake, holding 20 percent of the planet's surface fresh water, has long remained one of the most pristine places on earth. Now, as Russia's economy booms and its climate warms, the Siberian lake faces new threats.
READ MORE

DNA Technology: <br />Discovering New Species

Report

DNA Technology:
Discovering New Species

by jon r. luoma
By taking bits of a single gene, scientists are using DNA barcoding to identify new species. If a portable hand-held scanning device can be developed, one ecologist says, it could “do for biodiversity what the printing press did for literacy.”
READ MORE

e360 digest

RELATED e360 DIGEST ITEMS


29 Oct 2014: Weather and Climate Key in Weights of Penguin Chicks, Researchers Say

Local weather and large-scale climate trends have the largest impact on the weights of Adélie penguin chicks

An adult Adélie penguin feeds its chick.
— not food availability — according to researchers at the University of Delaware. Adélie penguins are native to the West Antarctic Peninsula, and their habitat is warming faster than most other parts of the planet. Looking at records dating back to 1987, scientists found that year-to-year changes in local weather — including wind speed, temperature, rain, and humidity — could cause chicks’ weights at the time they leave their nests to fluctuate by up to 7 ounces. That’s often the difference between a surviving and non-surviving chick, the researchers say. Biologists previously thought that food sources and parenting played the largest role in chicks’ health, but these findings suggest that exposure to elements is more important. The study "calls into question what happens to an ecosystem when you change climate quickly," principal investigator Matthew Oliver said.
PERMALINK

 

23 Oct 2014: Drones Can Help Map Spread
Of Infectious Diseases, Researchers Say

Aerial drones can help track changes in the environment that may accelerate the spread of

Researchers in Malaysia program a drone
infectious diseases, an international team of researchers writes in the journal Trends in Parasitology. Land use alterations, such as deforestation or agricultural changes, can affect the movement and distribution of people, animals, and insects that carry disease, the authors explain. One drone project, for example, tracked changes in mosquito and monkey habitats in Malaysia and the Philippines. By combining land-use information collected by drones with public health data, researchers there are hoping to better understand how changes in the environment affect the frequency of contact between people and disease vectors like mosquitoes and macaques, both of which can harbor the malaria parasite.
PERMALINK

 

In East Coast Marshes, Goats
Take On a Notorious Invader


Land managers in the eastern U.S. and Canada have spent countless man-hours and millions of dollars trying to tame a pernicious, invasive reed known as Phragmites australis. Toxic herbicides, controlled burns, and even bulldozers have been the go-to solutions to the problem. But recent research out of Duke University suggests another, less aggressive fix: goats. The approach is finding practical applications, including in New York City, where officials deployed a herd of goats at Staten Island’s Freshkills Park.
Read more.
PERMALINK

 

21 Oct 2014: Desert and Mediterranean Plants
More Resistant to Drought than Expected

Desert and Mediterranean ecosystems may be more resistant to climate change, particularly long-term
Mediterranean ecosystem
Plants in a Mediterranean ecosystem in Chile.
drought, than previously thought, a new study published in Nature Communications shows. Over the course of a nine-year experiment, researchers subjected plants in four different climatic zones to rainfall conditions predicted under future climate change scenarios. The ecosystems typically received 3.5 to 30.7 inches of precipitation annually, and researchers cut that total by roughly 30-percent to simulate drought conditions. Surprisingly, the researchers found no measurable changes in plant biomass, density, or species composition and richness in any of the four ecosystems over the course of nine generations of plants. The ecosystems already receive highly variable amounts of rainfall and the 30-percent drop likely falls within the plants’ natural "comfort zone," the researchers say, which could explain the unexpected resilience to drought.
PERMALINK

 

E360 Video Winner: A Legacy of
Toxic Pollution in Southern Waters


“A Red Dirt Town,” which placed second in the Yale Environment 360 Video Contest, examines the legacy of pollution in Anniston, Alabama, the former home of a Monsanto chemical factory. The video, produced by Spenser Gabin, tells the story of how PCBs from the Monsanto plant contaminated the town’s waterways and taint the fish that are popular with local anglers.
Watch the video.
PERMALINK

 

13 Oct 2014: Climate Change To Make Many
Fish Species Extinct in Tropics, Study Says

Climate change is likely to drive fish and marine invertebrates toward the poles and cause extinctions

Enlarge

Local extinction hotspots
near the tropics, according to researchers at the University of British Columbia. Under the conservative climate change scenario of one degree Celsius of warming by 2100, the 802 species modeled in the study are predicted to move away from their current habitats by as much as 9 miles, or 15 kilometers, every decade — a rate similar to what scientists have observed over the past few decades. Under the worst-case scenario of three degrees of warming, the researchers predict marine species will move toward the poles at a rate of 26 kilometers per decade. Under that scenario, an average of 6.5 species per 0.5 degrees of latitude would become locally extinct closest to the equator. The shifts will be caused by the species' reactions to warming waters, changing ocean chemistry, and ecosystem structure near the tropics, as well as new habitats opening up nearer the poles, researchers say.
PERMALINK

 

01 Oct 2014: Scientists Photograph Gathering
Of 35,000 Walruses on Alaskan Beach

In one of the largest gatherings of walruses documented in recent years, Alaska biologists photographed a

Enlarge

Gathering of walruses
congress of roughly 35,000 animals resting on a beach in northwestern Alaska. They swam to shore to rest, a walrus researcher explained, after the last remaining traces of sea ice melted in mid-September. Walruses typically rely on sea ice to provide a platform for resting and caring for their young as they swim to find clams, worms, and shrimp offshore, near the edge of the continental shelf. When no sea ice is available, as has been the case in the Chukchi Sea six of the last eight years, the walruses must make their way to shore. Besides taking them farther from their feeding grounds, the beach gatherings are dangerous for young walruses because they can be trampled, biologists say. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is considering granting Endangered Species Act protections to Pacific walruses.
PERMALINK

 

E360 Video: Indonesian Villagers
Use Drones to Protect Their Forest


The villagers of Setulang in Indonesian Borneo have enlisted a new ally in their fight against the illegal clearing of their forests for oil palm plantations: aerial drones. The indigenous Dayaks manage the surrounding forest conservation area, and they are hoping the drones can help them ward off illegal oil palm operations and protect their land. “Dayaks and Drones,” a video produced by Handcrafted Films, chronicles how the villagers teamed up with an Indonesian nonprofit to learn how to program and operate drones. Equipped with GPS technology, the small drones photograph the forest and monitor the area for illegal activities.
Watch the video.
PERMALINK

 

30 Sep 2014: Half of the Planet's
Animals Lost Since 1970, Report Says

The number of animals on the planet has fallen 52 percent in the last 40 years, according to an analysis by

Enlarge

Animal population trend since 1970
the conservation organization World Wildlife Fund (WWF). The group's Living Planet Index, which tracked the populations of more than 10,000 vertebrate species from 1970 to 2010, revealed major declines in key populations of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. The situation is most dire in developing countries, the report said, where wildlife populations have fallen on average by 58 percent. Latin America saw the biggest declines, with more than 80 percent of the region's animals lost since 1970. Globally, freshwater populations have plummeted 76 percent. This year's numbers are worse than those calculated in the last report in 2012, which found declines of 30 percent since 1970. The organization attributed this to new statistical weighting, which it said better represents each region's biodiversity, though other researchers have been critical of the new methodology. Habitat loss and degradation was cited as the primary cause of biodiversity loss.
PERMALINK

 

Cashes Ledge: New England's
Rich Underwater Laboratory


A little over 70 miles off the coast of New England, an unusual undersea mountain range, known as Cashes Ledge, rises from the seabed. Regulators are contemplating lifting a 12-year-old ban on commercial groundfishing in some parts of this area, sparking a roiling debate. What's not in question, however, is that the highest peak in the range, Ammen Rock, teems with kelp forests, sea sponges, and a wide variety of fish and mollusks — much of it captured by ocean photographer Brian Skerry during dives made earlier this year.
View the gallery.
PERMALINK

 

Interview: Making Farm-to-Table
A Truly Sustainable Movement

Renowned chef Dan Barber is synonymous with the farm-to-table movement. His two New York restaurants
Dan Barber
Dan Barber
feature organic ingredients grown or raised on nearby farms, including the one that surrounds his Hudson Valley restaurant. So it’s striking that in his new book, The Third Plate, Barber maintains that the movement he has been championing hasn’t gone far enough. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Barber says if the farm-to-table movement is to truly support sustainability, end the rise of monocultures, and produce delicious food, it’s the table that must support the farm, not the other way around. And that, he says, calls for a new way of cooking and eating.
Read the interview | Listen to a podcast
PERMALINK

 

11 Sep 2014: Brazilian Amazon Deforestation
Jumps by 29 Percent, Government Says

Brazilian government data show destruction of the Amazon rainforest increased 29 percent over the past

Click to Enlarge

Amazon deforestation rate
year. Satellites documented the deforestation of over 2,300 square miles in the Brazilian Amazon, reversing highly praised gains in forest conservation since 2004. The largest losses were in the states of Para and Mato Grosso, in central Brazil, which are experiencing widespread agricultural development. The building of new roads and dams, along with illegal logging, also contributed to the rise in deforestation. Brazilian police frequently target illegal logging operations, but environmental groups say more enforcement is needed. Deforestation in Brazil peaked in 2004, when over 11,580 square miles of forest were destroyed. Worldwide, deforestation is responsible for roughly 15 percent of greenhouse gas emissions — more than all types of transportation systems combined.
PERMALINK

 

09 Sep 2014: Ocean Acidification May Dull
Sharks' Ability to Smell Prey, Study Finds

Ocean acidification, which is driven by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, may cause sharks to
Shark testing chamber

Smooth dogfish shark laboratory testing
be less interested in hunting prey, according to research published in Global Change Biology. In laboratory experiments emulating CO2 concentrations as they are expected to be by the middle and end of this century, scientists from the U.S. and Australia found that the smooth dogfish shark became uninterested in squid odors — sometimes avoiding them altogether. Sharks in control waters pursued prey scents four times more often than sharks in waters with high CO2 levels, the study found. Rising ocean acidity can disrupt the proper firing of neurons, the scientists say, because it interferes with a specific receptor present in most marine organisms with a nervous system. A study earlier this year found that fish in waters with increased acidity were also less able to detect predator odors.
PERMALINK

 

29 Aug 2014: New Database Tracks Ecological
Health Impacts of Dams on World's Rivers

A newly launched online database illustrates the impacts of nearly 6,000 dams on the world's 50 major

Click to Enlarge

Dams in the Yangtze basin
river basins, ranking their ecological health according to indicators of river fragmentation, water quality, and biodiversity. The "State of the World's Rivers" project was developed by the advocacy organization International Rivers and created using Google Earth. Users can compare the health of individual river basins, see the locations of existing and planned dams, and explore 10 of the most significant river basins in more depth. The 6,000 dams represented in the database are a small percentage of the more than 50,000 large dams that impact the world's rivers, the organization notes.
PERMALINK

 

Interview: Drones Are Emerging
As Valuable Conservation Tool

Ecologist Lian Pin Koh is co-founder of a project called ConservationDrones.org, which is pioneering the use of
Lian Pin Koh
Lian Pin Koh
low-cost drones in conservation efforts and biological research across the globe. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Koh, a researcher at the University of Adelaide, explains how drones – also known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) – can help monitor protected areas, collect data in inaccessible regions, and even deter poachers. “In just the last couple of months,” he says, “there has been tremendous interest from universities and other research institutes that finally see the value in this technology.”
Read the interview.
View a gallery.
PERMALINK

 

23 Jul 2014: Earth Observation Satellites Help
Scientists Understand Global Change


Global warming is affecting more than just atmospheric temperatures — it is also changing water cycles, soil conditions, and animal migrations. Earth observation satellites aid scientists in measuring and monitoring these changes so societies can better adapt. Although there are well over 1,000 active orbiting satellites, less than 15 percent are used to monitor Earth’s environment. Yale Environment 360 presents a gallery of satellites that scientists are using to better understand how the planet is changing.
View the gallery.
PERMALINK

 

10 Jul 2014: A Possible Advance in Fight
To Combat a Deadly Amphibian Fungus

Scientists have discovered that a certain kind of toad can acquire immunity to the deadly chytrid fungus, which has caused widespread mortality among amphibians worldwide. Reporting in Nature, the scientists say they have conferred immunity in oak toads to the chytrid fungus after repeatedly exposing them to the organism that causes the disease. The lead author of the study, Jason Rohr of the University of South Florida, said the discovery means it might be possible to confer immunity on entire communities of amphibians in the wild by lacing local water sources with dead versions of the fungus that could be absorbed by the amphibians. But Rohr said many questions remain, including how long immunity lasts, what concentration of released antigen would confer immunity, and whether such releases would harm other organisms. The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, attacks the skin of amphibians, thickening it and preventing the animals from absorbing water and vital salts.
PERMALINK

 

08 Jul 2014: Protection of Parrotfish
Could Slow Decline of Caribbean Reefs

The steady loss of coral reefs in the Caribbean could be partially reversed by taking a number of relatively simple steps, including stronger measures to protect the region’s parrotfish, according to a new study. In a review of trends in Caribbean coral reefs from 1970 to 2012, the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network said that live coral only makes up about 17 percent of the region’s reef surfaces today. If present trends continue, the study said, coral reefs in the Caribbean will “virtually disappear within a few decades” because of foreign pathogens, algae invasions, pollution from tourism development, over-fishing, and warming waters. A key step in halting the decline is protecting parrotfish, which eat the algae that have been smothering coral reefs. The study said conservation measures, such as banning fish traps, have helped parrotfish populations rebound in some parts of the Caribbean, including Belize and the Bahamas.
PERMALINK

 

30 Jun 2014: Antarctica's Emperor Penguins
To Be in Serious Decline By 2100, Study Says

Antarctica's Emperor penguins are facing dramatic declines by the end of the century and should be given endangered species status because of the threats posed
retail greenhouse

Sea ice loss threatens Emperor penguins.
by climate change, according to an international group of scientists. If sea ice declines at the rates projected by current climate models, at least two-thirds of the colonies will likely shrink by more than 50 percent by 2100, the researchers report in Nature Climate Change. That conclusion follows a 50-year study in eastern Antarctica of Emperor penguins, an iconic Antarctic species with 45 known colonies. Emperor penguins' survival is highly dependent on sea ice concentrations because they breed on the ice, and too little sea ice reduces the habitat for krill, a critical food source for the penguins. Granting the species protected status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act will provide tools for improving fishing practices of U.S. vessels in the Southern Ocean and potentially for reducing CO2 emissions in the U.S. under the Clear Air Act, the researchers say.
PERMALINK

 

26 Jun 2014: Major U.S. Retailers to Limit
Pesticides That May Be Harmful to Bees

Home Depot and other U.S. retailers announced new policies to help limit the use of a group of pesticides suspected of contributing to widespread declines in bee
retail greenhouse

New warnings on plants aim to protect bees.
populations, Reuters reports. Under the new rules, suppliers will be required to label any plants treated with neonicotinoid pesticides, or "neonics," that are sold in home and garden stores. Home Depot will require labeling by the fourth quarter of 2014, a company vice president said, and the retailer is testing to determine whether it's feasible to eliminate neonics altogether without compromising plant health. Another retailer, BJ's Wholesale Club, which has more than 200 East Coast locations, said it will ask suppliers to eliminate neonics by the end of the year, or label plants treated with them as requiring "caution around pollinators." An analysis of 800 peer-reviewed studies released this week by an international group of scientists found that neonics have been a key factor in bee declines.
PERMALINK

 

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Top Image: aerial view of Iceland. © Google & TerraMetrics.

e360 VIDEO

Colorado River Video
In a Yale Environment 360 video, photographer Pete McBride documents how increasing water demands have transformed the Colorado River, the lifeblood of the arid Southwest. Watch the video.

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