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07 Dec 2016: Indonesia Bans the Burning
Of Peatland; Will Help Reduce CO2 Emissions

Indonesian President Joko Widodo announced a moratorium earlier this week on the conversion of carbon-rich peatlands into agricultural land — a move that could prevent hundreds of millions of tons of CO2 from being emitted annually. In recent years, landowners and companies have been draining, drying, and often burning the country’s abundant peat-filled wetlands to make way for palm oil plantations and other farmland. Fires in 2015 caused more than a half-million people to be treated for respiratory problems and $16.1 billion in economic damage, according to the United Nations Environment Program. Widodo’s moratorium protects peatlands of any depth and orders companies to restore any peatlands they have converted. "This regulation will be a major contribution to the Paris climate agreement and a relief to millions of Indonesians who suffer the effects of toxic haze from peat fires," said Nirarta Samadhi, Indonesia country director for the World Resources Institute.
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06 Dec 2016: Google to Power Itself Using
100 Percent Renewable Energy in 2017

Google announced that it has purchased enough solar and wind capacity, 2.6 gigawatts, to run entirely on renewable energy next year.

The company, whose data centers and offices consume as much electricity as the city of San Francisco, will get most of its wind energy from the U.S. Midwest, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden, and its solar from contracts in North Carolina and Chile. Google bought its first wind power in 2010 and is now the world’s largest corporate buyer of renewable energy. “The science tells us that tackling climate change is an urgent global priority,” said Urs Hölzle, Google’s senior vice president of technical infrastructure. “We believe the private sector, in partnership with policy leaders, must take bold steps and that we can do so in a way that leads to growth and opportunity.”
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Interview: Unusually Warm Arctic
May Have Impact on Global Weather

This year will almost certainly go down as the warmest on record in the Arctic, with autumn temperatures soaring 36 degrees F above historic norms.
Jennifer Francis

Jennifer Francis
Among the climate scientists attempting to make sense of the rapid changes sweeping the Arctic is Jennifer Francis of Rutgers University. Francis has propounded the widely discussed theory that swiftly rising temperatures in the Arctic, which are closely intertwined with the loss of sea ice, are changing the shape of the jet stream and altering the weather of the northern hemisphere. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Francis explains why large portions of the Arctic are experiencing temperatures more typical of New York City and warns that we ignore climate upheaval at the North Pole at our own peril. "The speed of the change is what is very disturbing to me," says Francis, "because it's such an indicator of what's happening to the planet as a whole."
Read the interview.
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02 Dec 2016: To Fight Air Pollution, Four
Cities Announce Ban on Diesel Cars By 2025

Four of the world’s largest cities announced Friday that they will ban diesel cars by 2025 in an effort to cut air pollution.

Traffic and smog in the outskirts of Paris.
Leaders from Paris, Madrid, Athens, and Mexico City made the declaration at the C40 Mayors Summit, a biennial meeting of civic leaders concerned about climate change. Toxic air is responsible for an estimated 3 million premature deaths each year, according to recent research by the World Health Organization. While diesel engines burn fuel more efficiently and therefore release less carbon dioxide, they do produce nitrogen dioxide and particulates that can inflame and damage people’s lungs. “Mayors have already stood up to say that climate change is one of the greatest challenges we face,” said Anne Hidalgo, the mayor of Paris. “Today, we also stand up to say we no longer tolerate air pollution and the health problems and deaths it causes.”
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30 Nov 2016: Soils Could Release 55 Trillion
Kilograms of Carbon By Mid-Century

The world’s soils act as critical storage for carbon, sequestering carbon from the atmosphere to fuel plant and microbial activity.

Permafrost in Greenland.
But scientists warned this week that as soils warm in response to climate change, they could release 55 trillion kilograms of carbon by mid-century — roughly equivalent to the projected emissions of the United States, or 17 percent of all countries, during that same period. The largest losses will be from high-latitude ecosystems, the new study, led by scientists at the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies and published in the journal Nature, said. This includes Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost, where colder temperatures and slow microbial activity have led to the buildup of massive carbon reserves over thousands of years. The scientists found that for every 1 degree Celsius of global warming, soils will release approximately 30 trillion kilograms of carbon into the atmosphere, or twice the annual emissions from human activities.
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29 Nov 2016: This Year’s Coral Die-Off on
Great Barrier Reef Was Worst Ever Recorded

The Great Barrier Reef in Australia experienced its worst recorded coral die off this year, with one region losing an average

Dead table corals on the Great Barrier Reef.
67 percent of its shallow-water coral, scientists confirmed this week. The mass die-off event was caused by abnormally warm water temperatures in the Pacific Ocean, which can trigger corals to expel their algae and calcify and turn white, a process known as coral bleaching. Corals can recover from bleaching, but many never do. “Most of the losses in 2016 have occurred in the northern, most-pristine part of the Great Barrier Reef,” said Terry Hughes, a marine biologist at James Cook University who led the surveys of the coral die-off. “This region escaped with minor damage in two earlier bleaching events in 1998 and 2002, but this time around it has been badly affected.” Damage to the southern two-thirds of the reef, however, was far less than expected, the scientists reported.
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28 Nov 2016: In Slovenia, Drinking Water
Now Protected as a Constitutional Right

Slovenia has amended its constitution to make access to drinking water a human right protected under national law — the first European Union

member state to do so. The amendment, which turns management of water resources over to the federal government as a public good supplied as a nonprofit service, was approved by the Slovenian parliament earlier this month by a 64-0 vote. Lawmakers who opposed the change abstained from the vote rather than voting no, arguing it was unnecessary and a publicity stunt, the Associated Press reported. Slovenia joins 15 other countries that have incorporated the right to water in their constitutions, according to the Agence France-Presse news agency. Prime Minister Miro Cerar, who previously called water “the 21st century’s liquid gold,” said that “being able to drink tap water around Slovenia… is a huge privilege that we must preserve for us and generations after us.”
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23 Nov 2016: Trump Will Scrap NASA
Climate Research, Senior Adviser Says

NASA’s world-renowned research into climate change will be eliminated under a Donald J. Trump administration, with some of the space agency’s climate work being transferred to other parts of the U.S. government, according to Robert Walker, Trump’s senior adviser on NASA. Walker said NASA’s chief function will be space exploration and that there will be no need for it to conduct what he has called “politically correct environmental monitoring.” He added, “Mr. Trump’s decisions will be based upon solid science, not politicized science.” NASA, a global leader in monitoring climate change using satellites and other technologies, has a $2 billion earth sciences budget. Walker, a former Congressman, falsely claimed that only half of the world’s climate scientists believe that human activity is driving climate change. Trump said on Tuesday that he has an “open mind” about climate change and is re-evaluating his pledge to withdraw U.S. support for the Paris climate accords.
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22 Nov 2016: Freakishly Warm Weather
Is Preventing Sea Ice Formation in Arctic

Scientists are watching with growing alarm as exceptionally warm air and ocean temperatures are effectively holding winter at bay throughout much of the Arctic, leading to record low sea ice conditions. Researchers in the U.S., Britain, and Denmark say that air temperatures over much of the Arctic Ocean have been about 10 to 20 degrees C (18 to 36 F) above normal this fall, while sea temperatures have been nearly 4 C (7 F) higher than usual in October and November. As a result, sea ice simply isn’t forming in much of the Arctic basin, which further heats up the atmosphere and ocean since dark, open water absorbs far more solar radiation than the reflective white surface of ice and snow. Jennifer Francis of Rutgers University said the region’s temperatures are now “literally off the charts.” Danish satellite remote sensing expert Rasmus Tonboe said the situation in the Arctic is both “surprising and alarming” because sea ice is disappearing faster than climate models had forecast.
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21 Nov 2016: Canada to Phase Out
Nearly All Coal-Fired Electricity by 2030

Canada’s Environment Minister, Catherine McKenna, has announced that the country will eliminate virtually all coal-fired power plants by 2030, which would mean that 90 percent of Canada's electricity would come from carbon-free sources of energy by that time. Speaking to reporters in Ottawa, McKenna said that four provinces still burn coal for electricity — Alberta, Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. They will either phase out coal use or will be allowed to temporarily keep some coal-fired power plants open if equivalent CO2 emissions reductions are achieved in other sectors, McKenna said. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, whose Liberal Party took power a year ago, ran on a platform of reducing carbon emissions and embracing renewable energy. Roughly 60 percent of Canada’s electricity is generated using hydropower, and analysts predicted that the Liberal government’s announcement Monday will stimulate the development of wind, solar, and other renewable forms of energy.
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18 Nov 2016: Nations Have “Urgent Duty” to
Carry Out Paris Accord, UN Conference Says

As the UN climate conference in Marrakech neared completion, nearly 200 nations, including the United States, reiterated their commitment to the

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry in Marrakech.
Paris agreement, saying that the world has “an urgent duty” to respond to global warming. In the joint statement, known as the Marrakech Action Proclamation, delegates pledged to stand with nations hit hardest by climate change, reduce emissions to meet a 1.5 degree C temperature goal, and mobilize $100 billion for resiliency work. “We welcome the Paris Agreement, its rapid entry into force, with its ambitious goals… in the light of different national circumstances,” the announcement said, “and we affirm our commitment to its full implementation.” Also this week, 47 countries on the front lines of climate change, including Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Costa Rica, pledged to go 100 percent renewable and carbon neutral in coming decades to “help trigger increased commitments from all countries” to reduce greenhouse gases.
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16 Nov 2016: Hundreds of U.S. Businesses Call
For Continued International Climate Action

More than 360 U.S.-based businesses, including some of the world’s largest multinational corporations, sent a letter to

Delegates at UN climate meetings in Morocco.
U.S. and world leaders this week asking them to continue to support the Paris climate agreement and speed up the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy. "Failure to build a low-carbon economy puts American prosperity at risk,” the group said. “But the right action now will create jobs and boost U.S. competitiveness. We pledge to do our part, in our own operations and beyond.” The statement, presented at United Nations climate meetings in Marrakesh, Morocco this week, was addressed to U.S. President-elect Donald Trump, U.S. President Barack Obama, Congress, and world leaders. Signatories include major conglomerates such as General Mills, Hewlett-Packard, Hilton, Nike, Kellogg, Unilever, Starbucks, and DuPont, as well as more than 50 other companies and investors with annual revenues exceeding $100 million.
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Interview: Are Trees Sentient?
Certainly, Says German Forester

In his bestselling book, The Hidden Life of Trees, German forester Peter Wohlleben argues
Peter Wohlleben

Peter Wohlleben
that to save the world’s forests from climate change and other threats we must first recognize that trees are “wonderful beings” with innate adaptability, intelligence, and the capacity to communicate with — and heal — other trees. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Wohlleben discusses how trees live in families, have an inborn memory of events like previous droughts, and possess the capacity to make decisions and fight off predators. Wohlleben has been criticized for anthropomorphizing trees, but he maintains that to succeed in preserving our forests in a rapidly warming world, we must start to look at trees in an entirely different light.
Read the interview.
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15 Nov 2016: For Third Year in a Row, Carbon
Emissions Flat as Global Economy Grows

Global carbon emissions from fossil fuels stayed flat in 2015 and are projected to increase by only 0.2 percent in 2016 — marking three years in a row that emissions have been decoupled from global economic growth, according to a new analysis by scientists at the University of East Anglia and the Global Carbon Project. The three-year slowdown is largely due to China’s declining coal usage, the study said, which helped the country reduce emissions 0.7 percent in 2015 and a projected 0.5 percent in 2016. But the scientists warned that emissions simply staying flat is not sufficient to combat climate change. “This third year of almost no growth in emissions is unprecedented at a time of strong economic growth… but it is not enough,” Corinne Le Quéré, a climate scientist at the University of East Anglia who led the data analysis, said in a statement. “Global emissions now need to decrease rapidly, not just stop growing.”
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14 Nov 2016: 2016 Temperatures Measure
1.2 Degrees C Above Pre-Industrial Levels

This year is on track to become the hottest year on record, with global temperatures measuring 1.2 degrees Celsius (2.2 F) above pre-industrial levels,

Global temperature rise over the last century.
according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Global temperatures this year will likely beat the previous record, 2015, by 0.2 degrees Celsius, setting a new high for the third year in a row. “Another year, another record,” WMO Secretary-General Petteri Taalas said in a statement released at the UN Climate Change Conference in Marrakech. By the end of 2016, 16 out of 17 hottest years on record will have been in this century, with 1998 as the outlier, the WMO said. Warming in Arctic regions has been particularly extreme this year, with temperatures in parts of Arctic Russia soaring to 6 degrees C to 7 degrees C (10.8-12.6 degrees F) above the long-term average. Many others parts of the Arctic have experienced temperatures 3 degrees C above average.
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11 Nov 2016: Just 1 Degree C of Warming Has
Altered Nearly Every Aspect of Life on Earth

Climate change has already impacted nearly every aspect of life on earth, according to a new study in the journal Science.

A bearded seal near Monaco Glacier, Svalbard.
Warming global temperatures have altered everything from entire ecosystems down to the individual genes of species. Some 80 percent of key ecological processes examined by the scientists show signs of change and distress. The disruptions could lead to unpredictable fisheries yields, reduced agricultural productivity, worsening pests and disease outbreaks, and “point toward an increasingly unpredictable future for humans,” the authors wrote. "There is now clear evidence that, with only a ~1 degree C of warming globally, very major impacts are already being felt," said lead author Brett Scheffers, an ecologist at the University of Florida. "Species' physiology and physical features such as body size are changing, species are rapidly moving to keep track of suitable climate space, and there are now signs of entire ecosystems under stress."
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10 Nov 2016: A New Initiative to Study
The Microbiome of Sub-Saharan Africa

Scientists have begun the first large-scale survey of microbial life in sub-Saharan Africa, analyzing 1,000 Ziploc bags of dirt from 10 countries, the journal Nature reported. The three-year initiative, funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), hopes to improve understanding of Africa’s diverse microbial biome in an effort to stave off the worst climate change impacts and improve agricultural practices. The project is being led by ecologist Dan Cowan at the University of Pretoria and will involve sampling soils in Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Zambia, Kenya, Ethiopia, Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria, and South Africa. The scientists will first analyze DNA to identify bacteria in the soils before looking into soil fungi in the next phase of the initiative.
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Interview: At Standing Rock Protest,
A Battle Over Fossil Fuels and Land

For more than eight months, the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe in North Dakota has been leading a protest to stop an oil pipeline from
Kyle Powys Whyte

Kyle Powys Whyte
potentially threatening its drinking water and sacred sites. In many ways, the battle over the Dakota Access Pipeline is a traditional fight over Native American land rights. But as indigenous rights expert Kyle Powys Whyte sees it, the demonstration also points to the important role tribes have played in opposing fossil fuel energy projects in recent years. “Almost everywhere you go, tribes have taken direct action to protect their health and their cultures and their economies from the threats, as well as the false promises of, extractive industries,” he says. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Powys Whyte talks about the long history of coal and oil and gas development on native lands and why Standing Rock has become a lightning rod for opposition to fossil fuels.
Read the interview.
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09 Nov 2016: Could Dying Puffins in the Bering
Sea Spell Trouble for Other Marine Life?

Starting in mid-October, hundreds of tufted puffins began washing up dead on islands in the Bering Sea off the coast of Alaska.

A tufted puffin on St. Paul Island in Alaska.
The birds weren’t sick, but were in an “advanced state of starvation,” National Geographic reported. While the deaths are alarming, scientists are also concerned about them being a harbinger of bad news for other marine species in the northern Pacific Ocean. Record-warm water temperatures in the region earlier this year may have shifted or reduced critical ocean food sources — small fish and zooplankton called copepods — affecting not only the puffins, but also dozens of other marine species, from seals to salmon to crab. “Clearly something very weird is going on,” said Julia Parrish, a biologist at the University of Washington. “It is basically every year now we’re getting some huge mass-mortality event… And the forage fish that everything depends on are taking it in the shorts.”
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07 Nov 2016: New Delhi Air Pollution
Reaches Highest Level in 20 Years

Indian officials declared an emergency in New Delhi over the weekend as the capital city entered its second week with air pollution levels

Children play in the heavy smog in New Delhi.
as high as 30 times above World Health Organization guidelines, several news outlets reported. Construction sites have been closed, operations at a coal-fired power station halted, diesel generators stopped, and officials are preparing to reinstate traffic restrictions, all to reduce smog levels across the city, which have reached their highest levels in 20 years. Officials say field burning on nearby farmland and fireworks from the recent Diwali festival helped worsen the smog conditions. Arvind Kejriwal, chief minister of Delhi, advised people to “stay home as much as they can [and] work from home,” The Guardian reported. Indian business groups said 5 to 10 percent of the workforce in the city and surrounding areas had called in sick over the past week.
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04 Nov 2016: Scientists Attempt to
Create 3D Models of All Life on Earth

Scientists at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst have launched a new initiative to create 3D models of all of the world’s living organisms.

A cane toad.
Biologist Duncan Irschick invented a 30-camera array, the “Beastcam,” that captures high-resolution, full-color images of an animal’s body from all different angles. Using those photographs, Irschick and his colleagues have already created 3D models of sharks, scorpions, toads, and lizards. They plan to focus next on capturing frogs and sea turtles. The initiative, known as Digital Life, is partnering with scientists, zoos, and non-profits to gain access to species, including those that are endangered or threatened, and providing 3D models at no cost via an open access website. “Digitally preserving the heritage of life on Earth is especially important given the rapid decline of many species,” said Irschick. “This technology can recreate organisms in a way that has never been done before.”
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03 Nov 2016: Even With Paris Pledges, World
Could Warm As Much as 3.4 Degrees C By 2100

Global temperatures could rise as much as 3.4 degrees C (6.1 degrees F) this century even if nations achieve the greenhouse gas reduction targets set forth in the Paris climate agreement, according to a new report from the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). Emissions for 2030 are projected to be 54 billion to 56 billion tons of carbon dioxide, which is nearly 25 percent — or 12 billion to 14 billion tons of CO2 — higher than levels needed to hold global warming to 2 degrees C by 2100. The new UNEP report comes just one day before the Paris climate agreement officially enters into force, and a few days before the next UN global climate conference in Marrakesh, Morocco. “The world must urgently and dramatically increase its ambition to… have any chance of minimizing dangerous climate change,” the UNEP said.
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02 Nov 2016: Diapers Made from Jellyfish?
Company Utilizes Super-Absorbent Qualities

Jellyfish populations around the world are on the rise, driven by rising ocean temperatures, increasing acidity, and overfishing.

A giant jellyfish.
But a start-up company in Israel has found a way to harness these booming jellyfish populations, using them to create biodegradable diapers and feminine hygiene products, The Guardian reported. The company, Cine’al, was created by University of Tel Aviv scientist Shachar Richter, who discovered that the flesh of jellyfish can absorb large quantities of liquids. By breaking down jellyfish bodies and adding antibacterial nanoparticles, Richter and his company have created a super-absorbent material they call “hydromash” that can be used in medical bandages, tampons, pads, and diapers. Americans currently throw away an estimated 40 million diapers every day, each of which can take years or decades to break down in landfill. The hydromash material takes only 30 days to biodegrade, the company says. Cine’al plans to have products ready for market in the next 18 months, according to The Guardian.
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31 Oct 2016: 300 Million Children Breath
Pollution Six Times Worse Than Limit

Approximately 2 billion children live in communities where outdoor air pollution exceeds World Health Organization limits,

Global air pollution levels.
according to a new report by UNICEF, the United Nations children’s aid group. That number includes 300 million children in areas with pollution levels six times higher than international guidelines. The pollution — caused by vehicle emissions, fossil fuels, dust, and burning waste — is a major contributing factor to the deaths of around 600,000 children under the age of five each year, the report warned. In South Asia, 620 million children live in areas with unsafe air pollution levels, followed by Africa with 520 million children, and East Asia and the Pacific region with 450 million children. The report comes just one week before world leaders converge in Marrakesh, Morocco for a United Nations meeting to discuss climate change and other related environmental issues, including air quality.
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28 Oct 2016: Nations Create World’s Largest
Marine Protected Area Near Antarctica

Two dozen nations and the European Union have agreed to set aside 600,000 square miles of ocean for protection near Antarctica,

Adelie penguins in the Southern Ocean.
creating the world’s largest marine park. The international agreement, which took more than five years to broker, will protect a large portion of the Ross Sea, located in the Southern Ocean. Scientists estimate that the Southern Ocean generates 75 percent of nutrients in the world’s oceans; it is also home to more than 10,000 species. Commercial fishing will be banned in the new marine park for 35 years, though scientists will be able to catch limited krill and other species in designated research zones. "The Ross Sea Region Marine Protected Area will safeguard one of the last unspoiled ocean wilderness areas on the planet — home to unparalleled marine biodiversity and thriving communities of penguins, seals, whales, seabirds, and fish," U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said in a statement.
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26 Oct 2016: At Least 74,000 Americans Live
Near Oil and Gas Wells on Public Lands

A new online tool mapping active oil and gas wells on U.S. public lands shows that at least 74,000 people in six states

Map showing population and oil and gas wells.
live within a half-mile of drilling sites. That close proximity puts these people at increased risk of cancer, heart disease, and respiratory problems from natural gas leaking from the wells, said the Wilderness Society, which together with Earthworks helped create the tool. In Wyoming, for example, 15,869 oil and gas facilities operate on public land, and some 4,000 people live within a half-mile of them — the range that airborne pollutants from wells, such as benzene, can easily travel. The mapping tool is being released at a time when scientists, environmental groups, and policymakers are ramping up calls to reduce and regulate natural gas leaks from drilling and storage sites.
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Photo Essay: How Pollution Is
Devastating an Indonesian Lake


Lake Toba Pollution
Binsar Bakkara

More than 1,500 tons of fish suddenly turned up dead in Indonesia’s largest lake earlier this year, a mass asphyxiation caused by high pollution levels. The event threatened the livelihoods of hundreds of fish farmers and the drinking water for thousands of people, and it shed light on the rapidly declining conditions in Lake Toba, the world’s largest volcanic lake. In a photo essay for Yale Environment 360, Binsar Bakkara visits the lake he grew up on to chronicle the destruction.
View the photos.
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24 Oct 2016: Pope Francis’ Call for Climate
Action Fails to Sway Many Americans

A direct call to action by the Pope has apparently failed to inspire people to be concerned about climate change, according to a new national survey by

Pope Francis.
public policy researchers at the University of Pennsylvania. Last year, Pope Francis release a 200-page papal letter entitled “Laudato Si,” or “Be Praised,” that urged 1.1 billion Catholics to address climate change and live more sustainably. The new survey, published in the journal Climatic Change, found those who had heard of the encyclical — both Catholics and non-Catholics — were no more concerned about global warming than those who hadn’t. Those who knew about the encyclical were also more politically polarized in their acceptance or denial of climate change. The scientists used data from 1,381 20-minute phone interviews one week before the encyclical’s release and two weeks after it was published.
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21 Oct 2016: Scientists Report Finding DNA
Mutations That Caused Snakes to Lose Legs

A mutation in the DNA of some reptiles about 150 million years ago switched off the gene responsible for forming limbs — leading to the

A green tree python.
creation of modern day snakes, according to two studies published week. The findings were discovered by two independent teams of researchers, which reported their results separately in the journals Current Biology and Cell. Some snakes, including pythons and boas, still have tiny leg bones inside their bodies, remnants of this evolutionary history; but most species lost their legs starting about100 million years ago. The scientists traced the mutation back to a docking site for proteins, known as an enhancer, situated in front of the Sonic hedgehog gene, which controls limb development. They found that the enhancer is simply switched off, not broken. When the missing DNA was fixed and the modified enhancer was put in mice, they grew legs like normal.
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The Moth Snowstorm: Finding
True Value in Nature’s Riches

It is the blizzard of moths that Michael McCarthy remembers most vividly. As a boy, his family would take summer nighttime drives to the English coast,
English butterfly

and the car headlights and windshield would soon be so splattered with moths they would have to stop to clean them off. “That phenomenon has gone,” says McCarthy. “It’s disappeared because there has been a horrendous crash in moth numbers in the U.K.” His recent book, The Moth Snowstorm: Nature and Joy, offers a defense of the natural world rooted in the joy and spiritual nourishment it provides. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, McCarthy, a British journalist, talks about the loss of wildlife; how the decline in species abundance, as opposed to extinctions, is overlooked; and why he thinks putting a monetary value on so-called ecosystem services is too limiting. “You can say mangrove swamps are worth so many billion dollars,” he says. “But what about birdsong? How much is birdsong worth?”
Read the interview.
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