16 Jan 2014: Report

Indian Microgrids Aim to
Bring Millions Out of Darkness

Powered by solar panels and biomass, microgrids are spreading slowly across India, where 300 million people live without electricity. But can these off-grid technologies be scaled-up to bring low-carbon power to tens of millions of people?

by david ferris

Bharath Kumar was furious that the lights went out an hour early. His candy-making operation in the village of Tamkuha, in northern India, had been plunged into darkness at mid-batch, forcing him to use a weak, battery-powered lantern to manage his boiling pots.

"If I knew that the power would be shut off an hour earlier, I would not have mixed the sugar in the flour," he fumed. "This is not the first time. I will keep a record of when the power is switched off every night and show this when they come for collections."

People everywhere complain about the power company, but Kumar’s power company has an unusual challenge. Husk Power provides light bulbs and a small amount of electricity to about 200,000 people in 300 tiny farming villages across the state of Bihar that have never been touched by
David Ferris
Thanks to an LED light powered by a microgrid, women in the village of Muglinkuha are able to work at night and glue beads to a sari.
the electric grid. Each village has a generator powered by burning and gasifying rice husks, a byproduct of farming that is otherwise wasted.

The six-year-old company is one of numerous startups that are trying to build carbon-free or low-emissions "microgrids" to light up rural villages across India. The need is enormous. Roughly 300 million Indians living in 80 million households — about a quarter of the country’s population of 1.2 billion — do not have access to electricity. According to the World Bank, per capita electricity consumption in India, centered mainly in cities and towns, is 684 kilowatt hours — just 1/20th of the United States’ per capita consumption of 13,246 kilowatt hours.

Nearly all microgrids in India are powered by solar photovoltaic panels, with the exception of 20 to 30 networks that run on hydropower in the states of Karnataka and Uttarakhand and the biomass-powered grids
The government wants to replace kerosene lamps with 20 million solar lighting systems by 2022.
operated by Husk. To date, microgrids provide just a tiny fraction of India’s overall power needs. Although no comprehensive statistics exist on the number of microgrids, a conservative count shows that they serve at least 125,000 households in India, divided mostly between large, government-sponsored projects in the North Indian states of Chhattisgarh and West Bengal and private ventures centered on Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are among the most rural and least electrified states in India — a countryside packed with tens of millions of people, united by darkness.

India’s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, through its National Solar Mission, has set the highly ambitious goal of replacing kerosene lamps with 20 million solar lighting systems — powered by microgrids, solar panels on individual homes, or solar lanterns — by 2022. The microgrid sector is dominated by smaller enterprises like the four I visited in India: Mera Gao Power, Naturetech Infrastructure, Minda NexGenTech, and Husk. Most microgrid entrepreneurs hope their trajectory will follow that of the mobile-phone industry, which starting in the late 1990s transformed life in the countryside by bypassing land lines and enabling villagers to communicate with the outside world. The goal with microgrids is to bypass altogether India’s inadequate power system and troubled grid.

"We argue that that villages and remote hamlets that are off the main grid can leapfrog into sustainable power access via solar PV (photovoltaic) mini-grids as a long-term solution rather than as a stop-gap 'till the time the grid comes,'" says a report on solar microgrids written by the Observers Research Foundation of Mumbai. "An Energy Revolution akin to the Green Revolution in Agriculture in the [19]’70s needs to be brought about."

Microgrid companies like Mera Gao Power offer a modest and rapidly installed infrastructure, serving as few as 20 customers from a small set of solar panels that often produce only a few kilowatts. One day in a village in Uttar Pradesh I saw how easy it is to install a microgrid. A team of four workers from Mera Gao strung lights to about 40 households. They attached the cables along house eaves and through the trees. (In other towns, installers use the abandoned poles of failed government power
By illuminating an entire village, a microgrid can spread light more quickly than solar lanterns.
projects.) With the addition of two solar panels and a bank of lead-acid batteries, the system was good to go.

Mera Gao’s customers pay about 100 rupees — $1.60 — and receive enough electricity to power two LED lights and a mobile phone charger for seven hours a night. Husk can supply about 400 households from one of its rice husk gasifiers. Two stories tall and painted green, the gasifiers are usually situated near the center of town, next to a giant pile of rice husks and surrounded by a rickety fence. Also for 100 rupees, a Husk user gets two CFL light bulbs and a cellphone charger, along with a power cable that supplies electricity for five hours a night.

The potential market for microgrids is huge, and the prospect of so many customers has made microgrids primarily a private-sector and profit-motivated enterprise. The leaders include small startups hoping to do social good, a multinational solar power company, and veterans of the cellphone industry. A report by the World Resources Institute and the Center for Development Finance estimates that the market for microgrids in India and other clean energy consumer products could reach $2.1 billion annually.

These startups’ prospects might be extinguished in a moment if regular power lines marched into the villages. But the electrical grid in India is already overtaxed; an estimated 25 percent of India’s power generation capacity is underutilized because of fuel shortages and other problems. The main supplier of power in India — the coal industry — also is hobbled by deep structural problems and the growing reluctance of international funders to build new coal plants.

By illuminating an entire village at once, a microgrid can spread light more quickly than handouts of solar-powered lanterns. It can also scale up far faster than traditional power lines, which are often promised in India but seldom delivered. By deriving their power from biomass or solar panels, microgrids raise the possibility that large regions could stay off the coal-fired power grid forever, shaving a significant chunk off the world’s future carbon budget. Whoever finds the business model for providing cheap, reliable, local power will help pull 300 million Indians from the 19th century into the 21st century, with vastly expanded opportunities for education and commerce.

Debajit Palit runs the rural lighting program for The Energy and Resources Institute in New Delhi, a nonprofit that has provided thousands of solar lanterns to some villages and built microgrids for about 160 others. He sees
Some Hindu neighbors don’t want to be on the same grid as Muslims.
the microgrid occupying a unique niche in India’s power system. In general, electrical service from a solar-powered microgrid costs the equivalent of 50 cents per week, or four to five times more expensive than grid electricity, which is heavily subsidized. On the other hand, it is far cheaper than a solar lantern, which might cost a villager more than $30 to buy — and then might break.

Palit projects that the microgrid and the regular power grid might one day converge on the same village and compliment each other, making the village’s power supply cleaner and more robust.

As I saw during a recent tour of a dozen villages, however, building a thousand grids of light won’t be easy.

Until Husk arrived five years ago, Kumar and his fellow villagers had never seen a power company. Their lighting options were kerosene lanterns, which produce feeble light and pollute a home’s air, or diesel-fired generators, which are expensive and getting pricier to run as the government pulls back on fuel subsidies. Charging a cellphone often required taking a trip to a bigger village.

Microgrid installation may be easy, but that is often where the simplicity ends. Some high-caste farmers demand that lines be rerouted because they can't bear to have electricity flowing from the house of the low-caste cobbler next door. Some Hindu neighborhoods don't want to be on the same grid as Muslims. One resident who breaks the rules and takes too much power, for a ceiling fan or television, can make the whole grid crash.

Then there is the raw frontier of renewable energy. The North Indian winter can offer a month of nonstop gray skies, which is a problem for solar systems that need three hours of sunlight to store enough energy for the night. Husk Power’s demand for rice husks — once not even useful for cow fodder — has started to drive up the price, forcing the company to hunt for corncobs or river grasses that have even less market value.

But the biggest difficulty by far is getting paid. India's farmers have irregular incomes and aren’t used to monthly bills. In tiny hamlets,
Many of these new electricity customers say their lives had turned immediately for the better.
forgiving one person's debt means that next month no one will pay.

This has forced microgrid entrepreneurs, many of whom got in the business for social good, into uncomfortable new roles as debt collectors. In response they have sought out new models that assure payment, from installing meters that dole out electricity in chunks like a prepaid cellphone, or hiring local franchisees who can use their stature to bring deadbeats into line.

Finally, there is the fact that some rural Indians, like Kumar the candymaker, are not necessarily impressed by the deal they get. "It is good, but the power is shut down at 10 p.m.," said a doctor named Mustakim in the Uttar Pradesh town of Attadhani. "The patient’s illness does not know this time. I need something that gives me light when I need it."

However, many of these new electricity customers told me their lives had turned immediately for the better. In Attadhani, one shopkeeper told me sales were up at his kiosk because customers could actually see his merchandise. Meanwhile, the wares at a competitor’s stall a hundred yards away were barely discernible in the dim glow of a kerosene lantern.

A teacher and village doctor in Purva Ghat, a tiny township in Uttar Pradesh, said his patients complain less of coughs now that they’re not burning kerosene, and that the children get more homework done because


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the parents aren’t worried about lantern fuel running out.

And in the village of Muglinkuha, I was led into a dark room where women knelt over a purple sari glowing under the beam of LEDs. The women were gluing jewels onto the fabric’s printed pattern, work they previously couldn’t do at night because the lanterns were too dim.

For now the microgrids have their circuits full providing only a few watts for light bulbs and cellphone charging. But, just like their cousins in the cities, rural customers will inevitably want more electricity to power refrigerators, fans, TVs, and other energy-draining appliances. It remains to be seen if solar- and biomass-powered microgrids will eventually become robust enough to give it to them.

"They want light, they want fans, they want TVs," said Padu S. Padmanaban, an energy adviser with the U.S. Agency for International Development in New Delhi and program director of the South Asia Regional Energy Initiative. "They want a [light] switch."

Sanjoy Sanyal contributed reporting to this story.

POSTED ON 16 Jan 2014 IN Business & Innovation Business & Innovation Energy Energy Science & Technology Urbanization Asia North America 


The question is if the underdeveloped world needs these inventions. Why? Well, there is not enough fossil fuel in order to give everybody on this planet solar energy.
Posted by Sommer on 16 Jan 2014

Excellent article on the subject. When distribution and transmission lines in India are not able to supply electricity to remote rural villages, there is hope from the innovation known as "microgrid." Microgrid is a small power generation grid near to the consumers. It is mostly developed by private/independent organizations.

In Jan 2012, over 300 million Indian citizens had no access to electricity. Over one-third (33 percent) of India's rural population lacked electricity, as did 6 percent of the urban population. Of those who did have access to electricity in India, the supply was intermittent and unreliable. Electricity supply to the rural villages is also not economically advantageous for government, because of minimal power consumption and high cost of distribution and transmission of the electricity supply. Apart from that, grid failure will add more trouble. The North India blackout is one of the greatest examples of Indian electricity grid failure. To all these problems micro-grid is a ray of hope in the Indian scenario.

Dr. A. Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India
Posted by Dr.A.Jagadeesh on 17 Jan 2014

I would think that there could be a way to power some things with a bicycle-type generator that could be mounted on one of those stationary exercise bikes. I know they don't produce a lot of power, but if two or more were hooked up in series they might help to power a few lights or power a charger for a cell phone. Remember the little generators that were hooked up to bicycle lights? These could also just charge a battery for later use.
Posted by Ric Trexell on 18 Jan 2014

Great article! I'm bullish that off-grid solar, whether it be from microgrids or solar home systems, will become robust enough to satisfy the rising energy demands of low-income communities in India and around the world. Innovations like integrated mobile money payments and low-cost debt financing solutions will surely help solar companies grow and scale to profitability. If they can do that, they can reach millions of people with clean and affordable solar energy.

This is why I work for SunFunder, a lending platform connecting investors with high-impact off-grid solar projects implemented by companies like the ones you mentioned. On sunfunder.com, anyone anywhere in the world can participate in the off-grid solar revolution, with loans as little as $10 at a time.
Posted by Cindy Nawilis on 22 Jan 2014

India is perfect for solar: lots of sun, an increasing demand for electricity. The existing electric transmission infrastructure is decrepit at best, so microgrids make a lot of sense. Use the electricity right where it is generated.
Posted by Tina on 09 Feb 2014

Which is it, cfl lights or led? You say both.
Posted by Marc on 01 Mar 2014

nice article.
I need list of all microgrid projects installed in india. If anyone have this detail please mail me on my email ID : suhagpa25@gmail.com
Posted by suhag patel on 23 May 2014

Pressured from its increasing demand for electricity, India is staring at new energy realities, As supply from traditional power generation lags behind this demand, India must leapfrog to a tech investment cycle that captures the full benefits of the plentiful sunshine it enjoys. Adopting an emerging alternative to traditional thinking will be critical to deliver expected growth. Microgrids, specifically distributed solar power generation, will have to be the default choice.


This article I read yesterday led me to search for this one. A very new perspective, but nevertheless a critical one in the Indian context.
Posted by Anabelle D'Souza on 14 Oct 2014

The argument that there isn't enough fossil fuel to build the
solar panels for the 3rd world is a silly one. Panel systems
themselves can produce enough power to create more
panels in sunny areas. The systems talked about in this
article are very tiny. Panels in bulk are now available
worldwide for 75cents per watt. Can you really live on these?
Well, I have been off grid in the US for 35 years, and still am.
This is being sent by sun provided electrons right now! Solar
isn't just the answer, it is the only long term answer for the
world. If the sun ever chooses not to rise....none of this
matters anyway!

Posted by Bill on 10 Nov 2014

Dear sir,
Please send the detailed classification techno commercially vi Val in India for MICRO AND MINIS SOLAR for the utilization in rural village electrification.


Posted by RAVINDER SINGH RAWAT on 06 Jul 2015

Decent write up, but very basic. The mini/micro
grid initiatives in general the Energy Access
programs across India are far more matured than
what David Ferris has been able to capture. We
now have CLEAN, the association of Clean Energy
Access Companies and DCE enterprises.
Just an advise to David, please drop this
sickening, stereotype, dysfunctional Western hype
of Hindu-Muslim. Even if you heard someone say
what you have quoted, it doesn't have to be
highlighted.That was a big put off in your write
Come to Basti in UP, we run a micro grid there for
the past 6 years, all communities share the
benefit of clean energy access..And, there may be
few hundred more such inspiring villages. That is
India !
Posted by Raghuraman C on 05 Feb 2016


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david ferrisABOUT THE AUTHOR
David Ferris is a reporter for EnergyWire who explores how energy technology is changing our lives. He has contributed stories about energy to Smithsonian, Popular Mechanics, Sierra, Forbes, Popular Science and The New York Times. Previously for Yale Environment 360, he reported on the impacts of waste-to-energy plants in New Delhi.



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