11 Dec 2008: Report

As Rain Forests Disappear,
A Market Solution Emerges

Despite the creation of protected areas in the Amazon and other tropical regions, rain forests worldwide are still being destroyed for a simple reason: They are worth more cut down than standing. But with deforestation now a leading driver of global warming, a movement is growing to pay nations and local people to keep their rain forests intact.

by rhett butler

Environmentalists attempting to preserve the vanishing Amazon rain forest now confront a stark paradox: Never before have they succeeded in protecting so much of the world’s largest tropical forest, yet never before has so much of it simultaneously been destroyed. The key question today is whether new models of conservation — including an increasingly popular, market-based program known as REDD — will be able to reverse the steady loss of tropical forests, not only in the Amazon, but also in Indonesia, Borneo, and Africa’s Congo basin, where virgin woodlands continue to be razed at an unprecedented rate.

Since 2000, foreign donors, working with the Brazilian government, have spent hundreds of millions of dollars to place 386,000 square miles of the Amazon — an area nearly as large as France and Spain combined — in protected areas. Yet during that same period, logging, farming, ranching, and development in the Amazon have destroyed a forest area half the size of Norway.

With land prices fast appreciating, cattle ranching and industrial soy farms expanding, and billions of dollars of new infrastructure projects in the works, development pressure on the Amazon will only accelerate. And the situation is worse in Indonesia’s tropical forests, now being felled for timber and the creation of oil palm plantations. Indeed, since 2001, deforestation in Brazil and Indonesia alone has led to the loss of 116,000 square miles of forest.

If these trends continue, one of the world’s greatest ecosystems — its tropical forests — will be whittled away piece by piece, with dire consequences not only for the diversity of life on earth but also for the world’s climate, already warming at an alarming rate.

Hope for avoiding the worst outcomes in the Amazon, Indonesia, and other tropical forest regions increasingly rests today on the belief that markets will soon pay for the services provided by healthy rain forests, which include biodiversity maintenance, rainfall generation, carbon sequestration, and moderation of the world’s climate. This idea is quickly gaining momentum as a wide range of interests — including global banks and financiers, development experts, government policymakers, and environmentalists — have embraced the concept that the best way to keep forests intact is to pay rain forest nations, and the people who inhabit the forests, not to chop them down.

The concept is known as REDD — “reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation” — and it is more than an abstract theory:

For the moment, these efforts are isolated and halting. To create a critical mass, the world community must mandate sharp reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and place a price on carbon. Meetings are taking place this week at a U.N. climate conference in Poznan, Poland, on these very topics, in advance of an effort next year to replace the 1997 Kyoto Protocols with new limits on greenhouse gases.

The goal is to get to the point where, thanks to caps on greenhouse gas emissions and a global carbon market, billions of dollars are raised each year to invest in REDD, or “avoided deforestation”, projects. While corporations pursuing commercial interests could end up protecting forests worldwide, poor countries could find a new way to capitalize on their natural assets without destroying them.

"Forests fall because they are worth more cut down than standing," says Andrew Mitchell, director of the Global Canopy Program, a tropical forest research and conservation group. “This is a classic example of a market failure, but ecosystem services could change that.”

Despite its promise, REDD remains controversial and faces many challenges, including ensuring land rights and financial benefits for forest inhabitants; establishing baselines to accurately measure reductions in deforestation rates; causing “leakage,” when conservation measures in one area shift deforestation to another; and concerns that developed countries would merely invest in REDD projects as a way of continuing to emit large quantities of greenhouse gases. But with the weakness of traditional conservation measures becoming glaringly obvious as deforestation rates increase, and with growing awareness that destruction of tropical forests is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, there is growing support for the idea that a market-based approach to preserving forests may be the best hope.

The conservation group WWF once opposed REDD programs out of concern that they were a mechanism to absolve rich countries of the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. But in September, in the face of ongoing forest loss, WWF president and CEO Carter Roberts said his group would now support REDD projects as a critical component of addressing climate change, as roughly 20 percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions come from deforestation. Noting that if the Amazon were a country, deforestation there would place it in the top seven emitters of greenhouse gases worldwide, Roberts said, “Unless the world has policies that recognize the value of standing trees and forests, we will have failed.”

The concept that developing countries should be compensated for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation has been around for more than a decade, but it had failed to gain traction not only because of fears that wealthy nations could buy their way out of emissions cuts. Some feared — and still worry — that the rights and interests of indigenous people would be ignored as governments, carbon traders, and speculators secure rights to the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests without the consent of the people who lived there. In places where land rights are poorly defined, such claims could be used to evict people from lands upon which they have been living for generations.

“REDD (projects) . . . will only achieve lasting results if they are adapted to conditions on the ground and help meet the needs of local people,” the Forests Dialogue on Climate Change — a coalition of indigenous people, trade unions, governments, and others — said in a statement last month.

Emerging REDD efforts have been taking those interests into account. And many tropical forest experts say that avoided deforestation programs may offer a better alternative than the status quo, which has long led to the displacement of native peoples from their lands at the hands of loggers and developers.

REDD advocates are also winning support from non-traditional partners, including humanitarian organizations, faith-based aid groups, governments, and the World Bank.

Research suggests that once a viable international carbon market exists, pure economics alone may boost REDD. In areas where infrastructure is poor and forests are abundant, REDD may offer attractive economic returns for rural communities. Several studies in Indonesia and Brazil have shown that locals could earn far more if they received REDD funds to
Seeing the enormous potential, governments and investors are already positioning themselves for a forest carbon market.
support sustainable development than they would from conventional logging or conversion of forests to farming. The world’s only sizable carbon market, in the European Union, prices carbon at $20 per ton. If investors seeking carbon offsets were to pay even a fraction of that amount to help preserve tropical forests in Indonesia, for example, it would dwarf the financial benefits the country receives from forestry – currently only $0.34 per ton of carbon released, one study has shown. Further, because REDD is compatible with sustainable harvesting of forest products and low-impact ecotourism, it could become an integral part of rural development schemes.

The Woods Hole Research Institute estimates that using REDD programs to reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon to nearly zero within a decade would cost $100 million to $600 million per year. The Eliasch Review, a British government-commissioned report on REDD, estimates that a cap-and-trade system that includes forest carbon could generate more than $7 billion per year — ­primarily through purchase of carbon offsets — to finance forest conservation.

Seeing the enormous potential of REDD, governments and investors are already positioning themselves for a forest carbon market. Last December, Merrill Lynch became the first major U.S. bank to invest in an avoided deforestation project, putting $9 million towards rain forest conservation in Sumatra. The bank hopes to lock up forestry carbon credits while they are cheap and sell them at a higher price if carbon markets emerge. The deal — involving Australia-based Carbon Conservation, Merrill Lynch, Flora and Fauna International, and the provincial government of Aceh — could generate hundreds of millions in carbon financing over the next 30 years by preventing logging and conversion of forest to oil palm plantations.

Aceh Governor Irwandi Jusuf sees the initiative as a key step in the region’s recovery from the devastating 2004 tsunami and three decades of civil war. To support the project, Irwandi has imposed a moratorium on logging, hired more than 1,000 former fighters as rangers, and laid out plans for the development of environmentally sustainable businesses.

In March a private equity firm took the unprecedented step of purchasing the rights to environmental services generated by a 1,432-square-mile rain forest reserve in Guyana. London-based Canopy Capital is effectively banking that the services generated by a living rain forest will eventually see compensation in international markets. Eighty percent of the profit will go to local communities through micro-credit loans to sustainable economic activities.

“The only way we are going to turn this thing around is through a profit motive,” said Hylton Murray-Philipson, director of Canopy Capital. “This is what is needed to harness the power of markets. But it doesn't stop with making a profit—we are also going to have to deliver a better living for local people. We need to start valuing the intrinsic parts of the forest as an intact entity rather than having to convert it for something else.”

The World Bank is helping jumpstart projects in more than two dozen countries with its $300-million Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, designed to help nations earn compensation through REDD projects.

Brazil favors a different approach, outlined at this month’s climate talks in Poznan, Poland. Brazil plans to establish a voluntary fund into which

Photo Gallery
Brazil Deforestation

Rhett Butler/ Mongabay.com
Deforestation in the rain forest of Peru
developed countries, companies, and other entities pay to reduce emissions from deforestation. With complete control over how the funds are spent and no allocation of conventional carbon credits to contributors, the initiative maintains Brazil’s sovereignty over the Amazon and gives it an unprecedented financial incentive to preserve the region’s forest cover. The fund aims to raise $21 billion by 2021, and Norway has committed up to one billion to the scheme by 2015, contingent on Brazil’s success in reducing deforestation. What Brazil does is crucial, since it is home to more than 60 percent of the Amazon and accounts for nearly half of global tropical forest loss annually.

Brazil has been vague on how the funds will be used, but the Bolsa Floresta program in the state of Amazonas could serve as a model for compensating rural populations for avoiding deforestation. The program, launched last year, pays forest families living near the Uatuma Reserve about $25 per month in return for not clearing and burning primary forest lands. Residents are also provided with health care, clean water, and greater access to education.

Though experts disagree on methods, few dispute that the world must try a new approach to tropical forest conservation — and fast. Daniel Nepstad, a leading tropical forest ecologist who now heads up conservation at the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, suggests we are already approaching a critical tipping point in the Amazon where the world’s largest rain forest will no longer be able to supply the vital ecological services it currently provides.

“The Amazon rain forest has already entered a dieback, in which the vicious cycle between land use, seasonal drought, and fire are rapidly degrading enormous swathes of rain forest each year,” said Nepstad, noting that if present deforestation rates continue half of the Amazon will be burned, cut or degraded by 2030. He maintains that, in addition to greatly reducing future cutting, 100,000 square miles of degraded Amazon land must be regenerated. Those measures, says Nepstad, would help ensure that roughly three-quarters of the original Amazon rain forest remains intact, an important factor in stabilizing regional and global climate systems.

Brazil’s target – a 70 percent reduction in net deforestation over the 1996-2005 baseline by 2018 – is less ambitious but is an acknowledgement of both the importance of maintaining substantial forest cover in the Amazon and the potential of forest carbon as an economic asset. In the long run, improved governance, new market-based compensation systems that reward environmental performance, and continued expansion of protected areas are all key to saving forests like the Amazon.

POSTED ON 11 Dec 2008 IN Biodiversity Business & Innovation Energy Forests Pollution & Health Science & Technology Central & South America Europe Middle East 


There is no doubt that improving living conditions
in the rainforest is the cheapest and easiest way
to preserve rainforests. If resources do not
reach populations on the ground, deforestation
reductions will be attained only temporarily and
at tremendous social cost.
Posted by Denis Minev on 11 Dec 2008


How about a stock market for trading in the securities of rainforests? Can't we find a way of taking these "commons" and making them assets in which people can invest?

Posted by Michael Eckhart on 14 Dec 2008

I agree with the comments; we should never forget that poverty and deforestation are linked. To reduce deforestation, we must provide economic incentives to those who depend on forest resources. At Planting Empowerment, we provide these incentives to our partner communities by channeling investor dollars into reforestation and education.
Posted by Andrew on 18 Dec 2008

How do you keep a hungry father from burning and hunting to feed his family?

How do you keep a corporation for using the tools at their disposal, marketing, politics and physical machinery to increase their profit margin?

I still have not seen a breakdown of corporate deforestation vs local.

I think internationally making people put their money where their mouth is is the most important issue. It is a shame that we give billions for oil that is under a desert or ocean while giving very little for the forests that we destroy - and are possibly destroyed forever.

Education of the international community is changing due to "climate change", but will it happen soon enough?

Locally (to the forests) we have to educate and create a social imperative to save their forest - keep the message simple - disrupt the forest and you are an evil person, or something to that effect. my 2 cents.

but if they are living day to day they most likely will not make good decisions.
Posted by chris on 19 Dec 2008

Thanks REDDS,

I am a native surrounded by last remaining tropical forests.

I am waiting patiently with hope when REDD be implemented in many tropical nations.

Our people are fed up with large logging companies. Several landowners have approached me and wanting to conserve their forests, in other words they want to conserve and generate little income for their forests.

Can you help me before their last remaining forests disappear?

Posted by Chris on 21 Dec 2008

I support these type of REDD initiatives, but we need to be aware that while this looks good from our perspective, this type of structure is not very attractive to developing countries' governments.

From a tropical government's point of view, prior to REDD-type programs, a rainforest produces zero income. A pasture or soy farm or timber operation adds to the GDP and generates taxes for government coffers, often lining the pockets of corrupt officials at every level.

If current trends are any indication, most governments will sit aside while the rainforest is destroyed, and their country becomes richer. The few governments, like Brazil's, who ostensibly want to put a brake on the destruction, most likely won't be able to have any effect on the deep-rooted destruction and corruption that profits the country as a whole. Do they have any real motivation for stopping deforestation? If they did, would they keep building bigger and better highways into the jungle?
Posted by Drew on 21 Dec 2008

The solutions to old growth forest preservation are mostly bottom-up. Unfortunately they are very difficult to formulate as they require some rare human qualities among those responsible for their elaboration: extensive local presence (inside the forest community), humility, perseverance, patience and persistence.

Throwing money towards the poor is not a solution, even and especially, when these funds are managed by their -supposed- representives in the distant and disconnected capital cities.

The day you succeed in establishing an allignement of interests with those that live in and from the forest, you will start to get some traction in the vital effort of reducing deforestation.

Posted by John Forgach on 07 Jan 2009

I disagree. Yes, we do need to save the rain forest, but what will the poor people do? Where will we get land for more houses? Where will we get medicines if we don't take it from the rain forest? What will all the farmers do when they will be unemployed people?

What to do about the rain forest is very confusing to everyone. If we save the rain forest millions of unemployed people will not have jobs and maybe money to feed their selves and their family.

It's easy for you to talk -- you probably have money, not like the people who depend on it

And if we do cut the rain forests, then what can we do? We might die. Very confusing.

Posted by max on 10 Jan 2009

It seems that we can also put economic sanctions against countries that destroy entire ecosystems. This is ecoterrorism at its finest.

People don't realize that anything purchased that is made out of mahogany came from the rain forest and was most likely illegally cut down.

It is this same mentality why children are sold and the very last Black Rhino hunted to extinction. For enough $$ we can still love you when you're gone. Our foolishness would only kill us if we knew we could have made more and benefited more with you still alive.

Posted by Katfishjak on 24 Mar 2010

Comments have been closed on this feature.
rhett butlerABOUT THE AUTHOR
Rhett Butler is the founder and editor of Mongabay.com, one of the leading sites on the Web covering tropical forests and biodiversity. His last article for Yale Environment 360 focused on how the global commodities boom accelerated clearing of the Amazon.



An Amazon Tribe’s Deadly Fight
To Save Its Land From Logging


Chocolate in the Jungle: Racing
To Save a Disappearing Forest

A runner-up in the 2016 Yale Environment 360 Video Contest tells the story of a small group of Ecuadorians working to preserve remnants of South America’s ecologically rich Chocó Rainforest by sustainably farming cacao.

At 1,066 Feet Above Rainforest,
A View of the Changing Amazon

A steel structure in the Amazon, taller than the Eiffel Tower, will soon begin monitoring the atmosphere above the world’s largest tropical forest, providing an international team of scientists with key insights into how this vital region may be affected by global warming.

What Lies Behind the Recent
Surge of Amazon Deforestation

After declining by more than 70 percent in recent years, deforestation in the Amazon is soaring. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, scientist Philip Fearnside explains what’s driving the clearing of the Amazon and what needs to be done to once again bring deforestation under control.

Camera Traps Emerge as
Key Tool in Wildlife Research

Scientists and conservationists are increasingly relying on heat- and motion-activated camera traps to study rare or reclusive species in remote habitats. And the striking images they provide are proving to be a boon for raising conservation awareness worldwide.


MORE IN Reports

As Chinese Luxury Market Grows,
An Upsurge in Tiger Killings in India

by sharon guynup
Poachers killed more tigers in the forests of India in 2016 than any year in the last 15. The spike is linked to demand for tiger parts in China, where the endangered animal’s bones and skins are regarded as exotic luxury items.

New Look at Rivers Reveals
The Toll of Human Activity

by jim robbins
A recent outbreak of a deadly fish parasite on the Yellowstone River may have seemed unremarkable. But a new wave of research shows the episode was likely linked to the cumulative impact of human activities that essentially weakened the Yellowstone’s "immune system."

On Slopes of Kilimanjaro, Shift
In Climate Hits Coffee Harvest

by daniel grossman
Rising temperatures and changing precipitation are taking a toll on coffee farms worldwide, including the plantations around Mount Kilimanjaro. If the world hopes to sustain its two billion cup-a-day habit, scientists say, new climate-resilient species of coffee must be developed.

Aimed at Refugees, Fences Are
Threatening European Wildlife

by jim o'donnell
A flood of migrants from the Middle East and Africa has prompted governments in the Balkans to erect hundreds of miles of border fences. Scientists say the expanding network of barriers poses a serious threat to wildlife, especially wide-ranging animals such as bears and wolves.

How Tracking Product Sources
May Help Save World’s Forests

by fred pearce
Global businesses are increasingly pledging to obtain key commodities only from sources that do not contribute to deforestation. Now, nonprofit groups are deploying data tools that help hold these companies to their promises by tracing the origins of everything from soy to timber to beef.

How Warming Is Threatening
The Genetic Diversity of Species

by jim robbins
Research on stoneflies in Glacier National Park indicates that global warming is reducing the genetic diversity of some species, compromising their ability to evolve as conditions change. These findings have major implications for how biodiversity will be affected by climate change.

Full Speed Ahead: Shipping
Plans Grow as Arctic Ice Fades

by ed struzik
Russia, China, and other nations are stepping up preparations for the day when large numbers of cargo ships will be traversing a once-icebound Arctic Ocean. But with vessels already plying these waters, experts say the time is now to prepare for the inevitable environmental fallout.

How Forensics Are Boosting
Battle Against Wildlife Trade

by heather millar
From rapid genetic analysis to spectrography, high-tech tools are being used to track down and prosecute perpetrators of the illegal wildlife trade. The new advances in forensics offer promise in stopping the trafficking in endangered species.

African Wetlands Project: A Win
For the Climate and the People?

by winifred bird
In Senegal and other developing countries, multinational companies are investing in programs to restore mangrove forests and other wetlands that sequester carbon. But critics say these initiatives should not focus on global climate goals at the expense of the local people’s livelihoods.

Ghost Forests: How Rising Seas
Are Killing Southern Woodlands

by roger real drouin
A steady increase in sea levels is pushing saltwater into U.S. wetlands, killing trees from Florida as far north as New Jersey. But with sea level projected to rise by as much as six feet this century, the destruction of coastal forests is expected to become a worsening problem worldwide.

e360 digest
Yale Environment 360 is
a publication of the
Yale School of Forestry
& Environmental Studies


Donate to Yale Environment 360
Yale Environment 360 Newsletter



About e360
Submission Guidelines

E360 en Español

Universia partnership
Yale Environment 360 articles are now available in Spanish and Portuguese on Universia, the online educational network.
Visit the site.


e360 Digest
Video Reports


Business & Innovation
Policy & Politics
Pollution & Health
Science & Technology


Antarctica and the Arctic
Central & South America
Middle East
North America

e360 VIDEO

A look at how acidifying oceans could threaten the Dungeness crab, one of the most valuable fisheries on the U.S. West Coast.
Watch the video.


The latest
from Yale
Environment 360
is now available for mobile devices at e360.yale.edu/mobile.


An aerial view of why Europe’s per capita carbon emissions are less than 50 percent of those in the U.S.
View the photos.

e360 VIDEO

An indigenous tribe’s deadly fight to save its ancestral land in the Amazon rainforest from logging.
Learn more.

e360 VIDEO

Food waste
An e360 video series looks at the staggering amount of food wasted in the U.S. – a problem with major human and environmental costs.
Watch the video.

e360 VIDEO

Choco rainforest Cacao
Residents of the Chocó Rainforest in Ecuador are choosing to plant cacao over logging in an effort to slow deforestation.
Watch the video.

e360 VIDEO

Tribal people and ranchers join together to stop a project that would haul coal across their Montana land.
Watch the video.