01 Aug 2013: Report

The Rise of Rubber Takes Toll
On Forests of Southwest China

In one of China’s most biodiverse regions, the spread of rubber plantations to supply the country’s burgeoning automobile industry is carving up habitat and harming watersheds and tropical forest ecosystems.

by mike ives

In the 1960s, when Zhou Fabei moved to Xishuangbanna prefecture, a tropical corner of southwest China’s Yunnan province, he quickly landed a job building roads for new rubber plantations. The timing of his move from the populous central province of Hunan couldn’t have been better for him: China’s post-revolutionary government had just started slashing forests and promoting rubber cultivation by state-run firms.

By the 1980s, the government was offering incentives to the prefecture’s poor farmers — many of them from ethnic-minority groups — to plant rubber on their homesteads as a way to escape poverty. Further subsidies were introduced over the next two decades, and China’s 2001 entry to the World Trade Organization granted its farmers better access to global commodities markets. As global rubber prices have soared to meet rising demand for tires and other rubber-based consumer products, many Xishuangbanna rubber farmers have catapulted into the middle class. Farmers in villages near Jinhong, the prefecture capital, said recently that they earn four times what they would for growing rice.

“Rubber is the main industry in Xishuangbanna,” says Zhou, now 66 and retired. “It’s the key reason why people here are getting rich.”

Click to enlarge
Xishuangbanna Prefecture

Yale Environment 360
Xishuangbanna prefecture in southern China’s Yunnan province.
Today more than one fifth of Xishuangbanna is planted in rubber, both by individual villagers and large companies, and the noxious smell of rubber processing hangs in the air on Jinhong’s rural outskirts. But those are the least of the problems created as monoculture rubber plantations have replaced exceptionally biodiverse forests and contributed to a host of emerging environmental problems. These include topsoil erosion, rising stresses on watersheds and hydrological cycles, and reduced rates of carbon sequestration, according to scientific studies. The plantations also carve up the habitat of native animals like Asian elephants and white-cheeked gibbons, according to a 2012 study by the scientists R. Edward Grumbine and Xu Jianchu.

Grumbine, an American author and scientist in Yunnan’s capital, Kunming, argues that because of rubber expansion, Xishuangbanna’s tropical forests are losing their ability to provide non-timber forest products and other economic resources linked to healthy ecosystems. “There are all sorts of positive stories that come out of the rubber transition — none of them are ecological,” he says, adding that Chinese government officials “bought into it before they understood fully the ecological consequences and the potential social and economic costs going forward.”

Environmental problems stemming from intensive cultivation of rubber and other cash crops also affect other regions in Southeast Asia where farmers are transitioning into plantation monocultures and away from swidden, or slash-and-burn, agriculture. The problems linked to that shift include erosion, increased stream sedimentation, accelerated pesticide use, and declining water quality, according to a 2009 study in the journal Science led by Alan D. Ziegler, a geography professor at the National University of Singapore. A study on rubber and oil palm expansion in Thailand by the U.K.-based nonprofit Birdlife International found that rubber plantations reduced biodiversity by at least 60 percent.

In Xishuangbanna a handful of researchers are investigating the environmental impacts of rubber farming, and the government of this region that borders Laos and Myanmar is beginning to act. It has
The government plans to convert under-performing rubber plantations back to natural forest.
announced plans to convert a fifth of the prefecture’s under-performing rubber plantations back to natural forest. That is significant because Xishuangbanna contains the world’s northern-most tropical rainforests and is known as a hotspot for plant and animal diversity. Although it covers just 0.2 percent of China’s area, it contains about a fifth of its mammals and more than a third of its birds, according to a recent study in the journal Ecological Indicators by Grumbine and Xu.

Scientists say rubber is rapidly changing that rich natural legacy. A 2009 study found, for example, that total forest cover in the prefecture fell from 69 percent in 1976 to less than 50 percent in 2003, and that the number of forest fragments increased by more than a third. During that same period, the expansion of rubber plantations resulted in the loss of roughly 500 square miles of tropical rainforest, according to a 2007 study in the journal Biodiversity Conservation. Grumbine and Xu also report that the area covered by rubber in Xishuangbanna grew from about 214,000 acres in 1992 to more than one million acres — roughly 1,600 square miles — in 2010. The Chinese government counts rubber plantations as forests, though many scientists disagree with that assessment.

The rubber transition in the prefecture is now abundantly clear: The terraced plantations near Jinhong yawn over a narrow mountain road, forming a green canopy that smothers sunlight. And the view from the city’s riverfront promenade is of hillsides full of rubber trees, punctuated only by cellular towers and housing developments.

View gallery
Rubber Tree Forest China

Photo by Mike Ives
Rubber trees outside Jinhong, the capital of Xishuangbanna prefecture.
Global cultivation of natural rubber, which is native to the Amazon basin and was imported to Asia in the late 19th century, has expanded by about a third in the last decade, largely to feed the production of automobile tires. Synthetic rubber now accounts for more than half of global production, but natural rubber is still in high demand because it generally is cheaper and of higher quality. Asia accounts for about 97 percent of the world’s natural rubber production, with Thailand and Indonesia each producing about a third of the annual global total of roughly 11 million metric tons. (China produces about 6 percent of the total.) And global natural-rubber production is expected to increase further in the coming decades partly to meet growing consumer demand in China, which in 2002 surpassed the United States as the world’s largest rubber consumer because of China’s rapidly growing auto industry.

Scientists say rubber typically has been planted on hillsides in monocultures that leave nutrient-rich topsoil exposed to the elements. A common result is that monsoonal rains wash the soil into nearby rivers and streams, alter river PH levels, and force rubber farmers to use more pesticides to sustain yields on damaged soils, explains Zhuang-Fang Yi, a researcher in ecological economics at the World Agroforestry Centre’s Kunming office. A 2007 study in the journal Tropical Ecology found that organic carbon decreased in the soil of rubber plantations roughly 20 years after planting. By contrast, mixed plantations of rubber and tea in the study were found to be more efficient at sequestering carbon.

And rubber trees are said to be “water pumps” that often are linked to water depletion, according to a 2010 study in the journal Ecohydrology by
Rubber farming has been blamed for a dramatic decline in fog frequency in the region.
a team of scientists from the United States and Singapore. Rubber farming has been blamed for a dramatic decline in fog frequency from the 1950s to the 1980s in Xishuangbanna, the study reported; the leading scientific theory is that rubber trees, which have especially deep roots, pull water from subsoils faster than trees in a rainforest would. Comparatively larger amounts of water then evaporate through the rubber trees’ leaves during the dry season.

The Asian Development Bank reports that each hectare of rubber plantation in its Xishuangbanna study area loses an estimated 22.5 tons of soil per year to erosion, and 136.5 tons of water through shrinking groundwater tables. “It’s no surprise that if there’s no consideration of forest protection, then in the next 25 years Xishuangbanna is going to be much drier in the lowlands,” says Zhuang-Fang Yi, the World Agroforestry Centre researcher who is analyzing hydrological changes in the prefecture.

The government has outlined in a recent five-year plan a program to convert under-performing rubber plantations back to natural forest while also planting trees along stream beds to prevent erosion and restore animal and bird habitats. However, Janet Sturgeon of Canada’s Simon Fraser University says the program should target state-owned or state-affiliated rubber companies, but that likely would clash with the political status quo.

View gallery
Rubber Tree Factory China

Photo by Mike Ives
A rubber-processing factory near Jinhong.
“The prefecture government has woken up to the environmental impacts of rubber, but they still want to plant rubber,” says Sturgeon, who has conducted extensive fieldwork in Xishuangbanna. “Their motivation... for their salaries and careers comes from increasing economic growth.”

But some scientists say they are more optimistic that Xishuangbanna can embrace a more holistic approach to rubber cultivation that offers both smallholders and state-owned or -affiliated rubber companies incentives to green their practice. In particular, they suggest intermixing rubber with crops like rice, cacao, coffee, and tea as a way to lessen ecological impacts while sustaining profits and farmer livelihoods. Diversified planting ultimately will be in China’s best interests if it wants to keep its rubber safe from diseases like South American leaf blight, which has devastated rubber crops on that continent, says Gerhard Langenberger, a botanist at the University of Hohenheim in Germany.

Zhou Fabei, the Hunan province native who moved to Xishuangbanna in the early days of its rubber boom, says he is grateful for the economic benefits that rubber has brought to him and his family. But he also knows the landscape, and acknowledges that the signs of ecological damage are increasingly apparent. “Rubber requires so much water that humidity’s decreasing, and it’s getting hotter,” he said recently in a village near Jinhong. “And because we cut the forests down, the animals ran away.”

POSTED ON 01 Aug 2013 IN Biodiversity Forests Oceans Policy & Politics Sustainability Asia Europe 


Funny, the Chinese government and G. Schaller are working together in the neighbouring Tibet, annexated by China. The locals notice the negative changes to the environment whilst the damage is done already in Yunnan province. But, they have their bucks.

It is clear the Western fever of making money related to greed is contagious to even the Chinese. And repeating the same destruction of the environment as 'in the West'. Always thought they were smarter.

Posted by Sommer M on 02 Aug 2013

Palm oil and rubber take over the planet! It's disgraceful!

Posted by freddie williams on 04 Aug 2013

It would appear that besides gambling addiction the Chinese like everyone else are addicted to the glorification of material wealth. Sadly, this too is all an illusion.

Posted by Michael Kirkby on 04 Aug 2013

Diversified planting ultimately will be in China’s best interests, true!

Posted by Jessica Parker on 07 Aug 2013

Great article, Mike. It is about time someone has written about this problem. I have a friend in the rubber business in Banna who brought me to see his plantation. I was shocked by scope and size. While the Chinese need rubber, they need their forests even more. I can only hope more is done to introduce additional cash crops, like coffee and tea, to these areas. If you are interested in a story on the last of the ancient tree forests on Nan Nuo Shan, please let me know, I will take you to see them myself.
Posted by Gary Price on 30 Aug 2013

I went to Banna a couple of years ago was shocked at the miles and miles of rubber plantations lining both sides of the roads, almost like the country roads in west Malaysia. I then visited their local rainforest park and was awed by the majestic trees with huge buttress roots, and it was so cooling in the rainforests. Quite sad to know that it was not so long ago that the rubber plantations were originally such rainforests, but it is heartening to hear that the authorities are converting some plantations back to rainforests.

Good article, Mr. Ives.
Posted by low seow juan on 04 Nov 2013


Comments are moderated and will be reviewed before they are posted to ensure they are on topic, relevant, and not abusive. They may be edited for length and clarity. By filling out this form, you give Yale Environment 360 permission to publish this comment.

Email address 
Please type the text shown in the graphic.

Mike Ives is a journalist based in Hanoi, Vietnam, and a correspondent for The Associated Press. He also writes for The International Herald Tribune, The Economist and other publications. In earlier articles for Yale Environment 360, he reported on the environmental costs of a rice boom in the Mekong Delta, and on how melting glaciers are exacerbating water shortages in northwestern China.



In the Pastures of Colombia,
Cows, Crops and Timber Coexist

As an ambitious program in Colombia demonstrates, combining grazing and agriculture with tree cultivation can coax more food from each acre, boost farmers’ incomes, restore degraded landscapes, and make farmland more resilient to climate change.

In Mekong Delta, Rice Boom
Has Steep Environmental Cost

Vietnam has become one of the world’s leading rice producers, thanks to the construction of an elaborate network of dikes and irrigation canals. But these extensive infrastructure projects in the storied Mekong Delta have come at a high ecological price.

A Plague of Deforestation
Sweeps Across Southeast Asia

Illegal logging and unchecked economic development are taking a devastating toll on the forests of Vietnam and neighboring countries, threatening areas of biodiversity so rich that 1,700 species have been discovered in the last 15 years alone.

Ginkgo: The Life Story of
The Oldest Tree on Earth

Revered for its beauty and its longevity, the ginkgo is a living fossil, unchanged for more than 200 million years. Botanist Peter Crane, who has a written what he calls a biography of this unique tree, talks to Yale Environment 360 about the inspiring history and cultural significance of the ginkgo.

Fires Burn More Fiercely
As Northern Forests Warm

From North America to Siberia, rising temperatures and drier woodlands are leading to a longer burning season and a significant increase in forest fires. Scientists warn that this trend is expected continue in the years ahead.


MORE IN Reports

The Rapid and Startling Decline
Of World’s Vast Boreal Forests

by jim robbins
Scientists are becoming increasingly concerned about the fate of the huge boreal forest that spans from Scandinavia to northern Canada. Unprecedented warming in the region is jeopardizing the future of a critical ecosystem that makes up nearly a third of the earth’s forest cover.

Northern Forests Emerge
As the New Global Tinderbox

by ed struzik
Rapidly rising temperatures, changes in precipitation, and increased lightning strikes are leading to ever-larger wildfires in the northern forests of Alaska, Canada, and Siberia, with potentially severe ecological consequences.

For U.S. Tribes, a Movement to
Revive Native Foods and Lands

by cheryl katz
On ancestral lands, the Fond du Lac band in Minnesota is planting wild rice and restoring wetlands damaged by dams, industry, and logging. Their efforts are part of a growing trend by Native Americans to bring back traditional food sources and heal scarred landscapes.

Beyond Sprawl: A New Vision of
The Solar Suburbs of the Future

by marc gunther
The concept of the "solar suburb" includes a solar panel on every roof, an electric vehicle in every garage, ultra-efficient home batteries to store excess energy, and the easy transfer of electricity among house, car, and grid. But will the technological pieces fall in place to make this dream a reality?

Natura 2000: EU Reserves Are
Facing Development Pressures

by christian schwagerl
An astonishing 18 percent of the European Union’s land area is protected under a network of preserves known as Natura 2000. Now, at the urging of business interests and farmers, the EU is examining whether regulations on development in these areas should be loosened.

As Ocean Waters Heat Up,
A Quest to Create ‘Super Corals’

by nicola jones
With the world’s coral reefs increasingly threatened by warmer and more acidic seas, scientists are selectively breeding corals to create species with the best chance to survive in the coming century and beyond. Are genetically modified corals next?

A Clash of Green and Brown:
Germany Struggles to End Coal

by christian schwagerl
A recent battle over imposing a “climate fee” on coal-fired power plants highlights Germany’s continuing paradox: Even as the nation aspires to be a renewable energy leader, it is exploiting its vast reserves of dirty brown coal.

On an Unspoiled Caribbean Isle,
Grand Plans for Big Tourist Port

by fred pearce
East Caicos is a tropical jewel – the largest uninhabitated island in the Caribbean and home to rare birds and pristine turtle-nesting beaches. But plans for a giant port for cruise and cargo ships could change it forever.

A Little Fish with Big Impact
In Trouble on U.S. West Coast

by elizabeth grossman
Scientists are concerned that officials waited too long to order a ban on U.S. Pacific sardine fishing that goes into effect July 1. The dire state of the sardine population is a cautionary tale about overharvesting these and other forage fish that are a critical part of the marine food web.

Despite Hurdles, Solar Power in
Australia Is Too Robust to Kill

by jo chandler
No nation has as high a penetration of residential solar as Australia, with one in five homes now powered by the sun. And while the government has slashed incentives, solar energy continues to grow, thanks to a steep drop in the cost of PV panels and the country’s abundant sunshine.

e360 digest
Yale Environment 360 is
a publication of the
Yale School of Forestry
& Environmental Studies


Donate to Yale Environment 360
Yale Environment 360 Newsletter



About e360
Submission Guidelines

E360 en Español

Universia partnership
Yale Environment 360 articles are now available in Spanish and Portuguese on Universia, the online educational network.
Visit the site.


e360 Digest
Video Reports


Business & Innovation
Policy & Politics
Pollution & Health
Science & Technology


Antarctica and the Arctic
Central & South America
Middle East
North America


Photographer Robert Wintner documents the exquisite beauty and biodiversity of Cuba’s unspoiled coral reefs.
View the gallery.


The latest
from Yale
Environment 360
is now available for mobile devices at e360.yale.edu/mobile.

e360 VIDEO

Warriors of Qiugang
The Warriors of Qiugang, a Yale Environment 360 video, chronicles a Chinese village’s fight against a polluting chemical plant. It was nominated for a 2011 Academy Award for Best Documentary Short.
Watch the video.

header image
Top Image: aerial view of Iceland. © Google & TerraMetrics.


A three-part series Tainted Harvest looks at the soil pollution crisis in China, the threat it poses to the food supply, and the complexity of any cleanup.
Read the series.