26 Mar 2009: Report

Satellites and Google Earth
Prove Potent Conservation Tool

Armed with vivid images from space and remote sensing data, scientists, environmentalists, and armchair conservationists are now tracking threats to the planet and making the information available to anyone with an Internet connection.

by rhett butler

In October 2008, scientists with the Royal Botanical Garden at Kew discovered a rich pocket of biodiversity, including several notable new species, in a remote highland forest in Mozambique. Trekking into the inaccessible, 17,000-acre region, botanists and biologists found 200 types of butterflies, hundreds of plant species, and numerous animals and insects, including three new species of Lepidoptera butterfly and a new member of the poisonous Gaboon viper family.

What’s significant about this find is that it was initiated not by some intrepid adventurer, but rather by a scientist sitting behind his computer. Three years prior, conservationist Julian Bayliss identified the site — Mount Mabu — using Google Earth. Bayliss, a Tanzanian ecologist, then helped plan and lead the expedition.

The use of Google Earth to make a virtual discovery, which then led to an actual one, is just the latest example of how the spread of satellite technology — and related computer applications such as Google Earth — are changing the way scientists, conservationists, and ordinary citizens are monitoring the environment and communicating their findings to the public.

Once the exclusive domain of the military, government officials, and specialized scientists, satellite technology is being democratized and is fast becoming an indispensable tool for researchers across a wide spectrum of environmental fields. In the past several years, one of the chief uses for satellite imagery has been to accurately quantify the loss of tropical forests from the Amazon, to the Congo, to Indonesia. In Brazil, scientists and state environmental protection officials can now monitor fires and forest clearing almost in real-time and take action to combat the deforestation.

But perhaps the most revolutionary advance in using satellites to monitor the planet has been the ever-widening use of remote sensing technology by ordinary citizens. Google Earth has been instrumental in this development and represents a critical point in its evolution, allowing anyone with an Internet connection to attach data to a geographic representation of Earth. Citizens and environmental groups are now using Google Earth to tracks threats to pristine rivers from hydroelectric projects, catalogue endangered species, help indigenous people in the Amazon protect their land, and alert citizens and government officials that boats are illegally fishing off the Canary Islands.

"A decade ago, high-resolution satellite imagery for the whole planet would have been accessible only to a handful of people working in government agencies, resource extraction, or as scientists,” said David Tryse, an Internet technology specialist — and ordinary citizen — who has developed numerous Google Earth applications now being used by scientists and conservation groups. “Today it is in the hands of millions of people. It's impossible to care about something if you don't know it exists, but now people can fly across the planet and zoom in to see for themselves the huge fires from Shell's gas-flaring operations in the Nigerian delta or follow the discolored toxic runoff along a hundred kilometers of rain forest river downstream from a goldmine in Peru or Indonesian Papua."

The first launch of a non-weather satellite for civilian use occurred in 1972, when NASA put Landsat into orbit to monitor the planet’s landmasses, tracking everything from desertification to changes in agriculture. Since then, ever-more sophisticated satellites have used cameras and a variety of sensors — including passive microwave, which can penetrate clouds to image the earth’s surface, and infrared sensors that can measure temperatures — to monitor a host of physical processes. One of the key functions has been the use of passive microwave technology to chronicle the steady decline of Arctic sea ice over the past 30 years.

Today, many countries use satellites to monitor their environment, including Brazil, which has one of the world’s most sophisticated systems
Now people can fly across the planet and zoom in to see for themselves.
for tracking deforestation. Brazil uses two systems that can rapidly identify where forest loss is occurring, giving the country’s environmental protection agency the technical capacity — although not necessarily the political will — to combat deforestation as it happens. Those systems rely on optical sensors and thus cannot see through clouds, but Brazil will soon launch its own earth observation satellite with cloud-penetrating technology, known as LIDAR.

Greg Asner of the Carnegie Institution’s Department of Global Ecology at Stanford University has used advanced LIDAR technology to scan a Hawaiian forest and identify alien plant species by their canopies and the amount of ground plants that grow under them.

A new frontier for remote sensing is the emergence of REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation), a mechanism for compensating tropical countries for conserving their forests. To date, one of the biggest hurdles for the concept has been establishing credible national baselines for deforestation rates — in order to compensate countries for "avoided deforestation," officials must first know how much forest the country has been clearing on a historical basis. For the remote sensing community, REDD presents an opportunity to showcase the power of remote sensing and generate a source of funding for countries to improve their sensing capabilities.

Introduced in 2005, Google Earth — which can be downloaded for free — aggregates and organizes satellite imagery, aerial photography, and three-D global information system data from a range of sources and presents it in a format that is easily accessible to the general public. Through KML, Google Earth's programming language, users “interact” with the planet, attaching images and other information to geospatial data. This makes Google Earth an ideal tool for conservationists, such as the group Save the Elephants, which tracks the movement of elephants across Africa to see where they come into conflict with humans and where they forage. To further such conservation goals, Google has developed its Outreach program, an initiative that works with nonprofits to develop tools using Google Earth.

Part of the inspiration for Google Earth Outreach came from within the company itself. Rebecca Moore, a programmer at Google, used Google Earth to document a planned logging project near her home in Santa Cruz County, Calif. Working with members from her community, Moore created a virtual map of the area that would be affected. Her subsequent data animation, which took users on a virtual flyover across the proposed logging zone, generated a firestorm of protest and led to the cancellation of the project. Google Outreach was established shortly thereafter, in June 2007, with Moore in charge.

“Because Google Earth provides, for many areas, such a realistic model of the real earth, you almost feel as if you are on that mountaintop or looking over that valley,” said Moore. “This immersive experience enables conservation organizations to convey complex environmental issues more quickly and persuasively to busy decision-makers, the media and the general public.”

Many scientists have begun to adapt Google Earth technology to their research and their communications with the public. The technology also has emerged as an effective way to publish scientific results in an accessible and meaningful format. While Google Earth is not going to replace scientific journals, it offers a concise, visual format for presenting research that can be more compelling than data points on a chart, rows in a spreadsheet, or a 4-color map.

Mark Mulligan of the Environmental Monitoring and Modeling Group at King’s College London has capitalized on the power of Google Earth to create HealthyPlanet.org, an initiative that allows people to virtually see,
Google Earth allows these conservation organizations to look at their projects from space.
and sponsor, a specific piece of many of the planet’s 77,000 protected areas. His group also worked on an application, Costing Nature, that allows users to trace stream flow in an urban area back to the protected area where it fell as rainfall, providing a potent example of the value of ecosystem services. In addition, Mulligan's team has developed Google Earth applications examining the impact of oil production in the Ecuadorean Amazon and the distribution of tropical cloud forests.

“Traditionally remote sensing data have been difficult to get hold of, difficult to process, and beyond the means of many of the smaller conservation organizations,” said Mulligan. “Google Earth allows these organizations to look at their projects from space and draw upon a wealth of environmental data, in addition to the imagery. Clearly, conservation needs good professionals working with communities on the ground, but it also needs to harness the significant body of interested citizens who can do their bit.”

Google Earth is also being used for original research. One study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science last year, was based on an analysis of 8,510 cattle spotted in Google Earth images of 308 pastures and plains around the world. Surprisingly, two-thirds of the cattle — as well as a majority of 3,000 grazing deer monitored in satellite photos from the Czech Republic — tended to align themselves with the Earth's magnetic field lines, in a north-south direction. The research employed satellite technology to spot a phenomenon that literally had been hiding in plain sight for millennia: that large, non-migratory land animals were affected by the earth’s magnetism. (Earlier studies had established that magnetism guided the long-distance migrations of birds, fish, butterflies, and animals.)

Among the ordinary citizens who have been most active in marshaling the power of Google Earth for environmental work is David Tryse. His interest in conservation led him to develop an application for the Zoological Society
In the Amazon, Indians log onto Google Earth to see where new gold mines are popping up.
of London's “EDGE of Existence” program, an initiative to promote awareness of — and generate funding for — 100 of the world’s rarest species. His application allows people to surf the planet to see photos of endangered species, information about their habitat, and the threats they face. Tryse also has used Google Earth to track deforestation worldwide, highlight hydroelectric threats to Borneo’s rivers, map global biodiversity hot spots, and monitor encroachment on the lands of isolated, indigenous tribes around the world.

The Jane Goodall Foundation, a partner in a project known as Google Earth Outreach, uses Google Earth three-dimensional images to show Tanzanian villagers that forests are the source of their water and to enlist the villagers in identifying chimpanzee habitat and elephant paths.

One of the first Google Earth Outreach projects involved indigenous tribes in the Amazon rain forest. Facing an onslaught of threats to their lands and culture, the tribes have embraced advanced technology as a means of protecting and better managing their homeland. The tribes — including the Surui in western Brazil and the Wayana and Trio in Suriname — are using GPS to map their lands, plot rivers, sites of spiritual significance, and their resources, including medicinal plants and rich hunting grounds. The Rainforest Foundation UK and the Global Canopy Program are taking a similar approach in Congo and Cameroon, respectively, helping communities map their lands to protect against illegal logging and other forms of encroachment.

"Google Earth is used primarily for vigilance," said Vasco van Roosmalen, Brazil program director for the Amazon Conservation Team, an organization that has coordinated the Google Earth project with the tribes. "Indians log on to Google Earth and study images, inch by inch, looking to see where new gold mines are popping up or where invasions are occurring. They can see river discoloration, which could be the product of sedimentation and pollution from a nearby mine. They are able to use these images to find the smallest gold mine."

As Chief Almir Surui of the Suri tribe put it, "The Surui know little about the Internet, but Google knows little about the forest, so working together we will be stronger."

POSTED ON 26 Mar 2009 IN Biodiversity Climate Oceans Pollution & Health Science & Technology North America 


The following link might be of interest. Mr. Beller's Neighborhood enables the use of Google maps to tell stories about specific points on the map. Such stories could be (and probably sometimes are) environmental as well.

Posted by Trevor Burrowes on 26 Mar 2009

This is wonderful article for the layperson. It can give us all hope that not just large institutions, but the many, who are interested in better ecological decisions, will be able to keep track of what is going on. If there is a will, individual decisions will be able to overcome the least cost solutions which large institutions tend to back into.
Posted by Walter Sleeth on 26 Mar 2009

Timely article. Just today, in fact, NRDC unveiled a Google Earth project. It's designed to help renewable energy developers bring more wind, solar and other clean energy projects to the Western United States without harming important wildlife and wilderness areas.

Check it out at www.nrdc.org/PathtoGreenEnergy
Posted by Scott Dodd on 01 Apr 2009

Rhett Buttler’s article is one of those gems that sometimes fall between the cracks where e360 commenters are concerned. But I can’t think of a more effective tool for monitoring and shaping Earth’s environmental trends than via Google Earth. Ideas flood to mind, and I throw them out through the roughest draft notations possible. There might be others out there who have thought about some of these issues more carefully and care to share their thoughts.

CONSENSUS: So far, there are no e360 constituencies arguing on opposite sides of issues, although undoubtedly there is opposition among loggers, farmers and the like in affected communities.

ACTION: This isn’t a matter of theory or belief. Everyone can see objective visual evidence of what is occurring on the earth’s surface, whether on land, water, or in the air. How do we improve our ability to monitor change, and how do we arrive at desired actions around the evidence?

SCHOOLS: Civics, geography, ethics, science are among the subjects that apply to a Google-Earth-centered curriculum. Can students everywhere use these tools to monitor their own communities? Monitor the growth (environmentally benign or otherwise) of infrastructure such as solar panels, windmills, new trees, new roads, deforestation, community gardens, trails, sprawl…?

COORDINATION: We need coordination and synthesis of issues that culminate in the outcomes we desire to observe through Google Earth. It would be nice to see Yale tackle this ambitious task having largely to do with international governance and new models of pedagogy.

- National projects such as cross-country diversionary canals that will divert flood waters away from places like the Red River Valley or along the Mississippi — where it might be located, advantages to constituencies who might support it…
-What are the ethical implications of the lust for diamonds (or shark fins, or elephant tusks) when correlated to inhumane behavior, or the loss of species, habitat and forest? What are the implications for international justice? For lifestyle change?

ART: The visual shaping of the world in a way that is “beautiful” falls within the scope of art. Although it strongly favors visual art, a wide variety of Google Earth’s “mapping” functions apply to other arts as well.

INCENTIVES: The need for a coordinated funding and regulatory agreement as part of intergovernmental relationships.
Posted by Trevor Burrowes on 01 Apr 2009

Ref...Using Satellite Photometry and its pragmatic interpretation on the ground with local communities and how they and we all can benefit via the REDD process..........

Has anyone ever had the courtesy to ask people in their actual local communities if they would and could benefit from the REDD process?

Now let us "get a grip," and this is where the high and mighty, but hopefully compassionate conservation and sustainable development personnel have to work together for the common aim. The WWF/CI/Greenpeace and the Oxfams, Save the Children, Christian Aid et al colleagues should together sit up and listen...It seems as always there are the conservationists and there are the (sustainable, I hope) development think tankers...For over thirty years some academics have hammered at the door to get the two groups together to work in unison and relative harmony to see the professional, yet compassionate viewpoints of the other...Some like WWF do but they also tend to shy from some difficult social and political issues. This is the same for all. Now, however we all, have a chance to work together in the 72 months we have before the greatest threat to humanity and our biodiversity approaches the opening of the Armaggeddon epoch....

For the sake of the 6 years we have got to actually combine the wit of humanity to believe that the human species is worth saving where democratic involvement is still an effective and active participatory role.

We have to work together, ALL of us what ever our background and the "Brownie Points" we wish to gain from being first past the post with the gold medal.......oh please!!

At this point in time let us relate to some hard facts which will in turn evolve into the philosophical directions we all choose.

REDD will work if there is a core set of prinicple arguments which local communities are informed about and for which they understand, and are part of, and participants in the whole sustainable development-biodiversity and ecological framework of maintenance of the forest biome in which they reside.

The mechanism of payments is something that can be resolved with discourse and that is for negotiations, but it must fundamentally be in relation to the primary carbon productivity in a forest biome (and its variant associations) which to undertake and resolve is well within our capability if we can do a similar process forty years ago to measure the primary net productivity of our terrestrial biosphere for the "Man and the Biosphere Programme". There are various figures being suggested for the quanitity of payment to local communities some being derisory (such as US$4/ct some up to a realisitic US$115/ct!!)

One base level option can be equated to the UK Government report by N. Stern who suggested that 1% of global GDP should be used to counter the debacle of devastating climate change, of which 18-20% of this should be directed to the REDD process of socio-environmental insurance finance.

All the top down arguments are a set of theories put down by scientists for their business enterprises or government departments, which are a useful and only initial bench marks for the framework upon which the real participants, the local communicants who reside in or around the edge of our closed, natural forests of what ever catagory in which they are located. For in the end to save the remaing forests from being deforested and for the "finance insurance" of REDD to being blessed to such communities to sequester tonnage of carbon per hectare will be the only fundamental means by which 18% of the global emissions from carbon equivalent pollutants will be sequested and stored, and for the remaining biodiversity of forest bimes to be maintained to continue their evolutionary process and to maintain the environmental services, which by the way equates to at least the same value of the global gross domestic product.

Just out of interest these arguments will be part of a paper being given by this contributor at the Green Economic Institute's Annual Conference at Mansfield College, University of Oxford from 31st July to 2nd August this year.


Nigel Miles
Posted by (Dr.) Nigel Miles on 12 Jul 2009

Comments have been closed on this feature.
rhett butlerABOUT THE AUTHOR
Rhett Butler is the founder and editor of Mongabay.com, one of the leading sites on the Web covering tropical forests and biodiversity. In previous articles for Yale Environment 360, he has written about how the global commodities boom accelerated clearing of the Amazon and about the burgeoning wildlife trade in Laos.



For Storing Electricity, Utilities
Are Turning to Pumped Hydro

High-tech batteries may be garnering the headlines. But utilities from Spain to China are increasingly relying on pumped storage hydroelectricity – first used in the 1890s – to overcome the intermittent nature of wind and solar power.

Why Brazil’s New Pledges On
Carbon Emissions Fall Short

Brazil has won international acclaim for curbing deforestation. But Brazilian forestry expert Maria Fernanda Gebara says her country has not gone far enough in its pledges to cut carbon emissions and continues to have a dismal record on developing wind and solar power.

African Lights: Solar Microgrids Are
Bringing Power to People in Rural Kenya

Small-scale microgrids are increasingly seen as the most promising way to bring electricity to the 1.3 billion people worldwide who currently lack it. In Kenya, an innovative solar company is using microgrids and smart meters to deliver power to villages deep in the African bush.

How 'Third Way' Technologies
Can Help Turn Tide on Climate

In a Yale Environment 360 interview, Australian scientist and author Tim Flannery explains how the development of technologies that mimic the earth’s natural carbon-removing processes could provide a critical tool for slowing global warming.

A Delicate Balance: Protecting
Northwest’s Glass Sponge Reefs

Rare and extensive reefs of glass sponges are found only one place on earth – a stretch of the Pacific Northwest coast. Now, efforts are underway to identify and protect these fragile formations before they are obliterated by fishing vessels that trawl the bottom.


MORE IN Reports

For Storing Electricity, Utilities
Are Turning to Pumped Hydro

by john roach
High-tech batteries may be garnering the headlines. But utilities from Spain to China are increasingly relying on pumped storage hydroelectricity – first used in the 1890s – to overcome the intermittent nature of wind and solar power.

On Thin Ice: Big Northern Lakes
Are Being Rapidly Transformed

by cheryl katz
As temperatures rise, the world’s iconic northern lakes are undergoing major changes that include swiftly warming waters, diminished ice cover, and outbreaks of harmful algae. Now, a global consortium of scientists is trying to assess the toll.

The Haunting Legacy of
South Africa’s Gold Mines

by mark olalde
Thousands of abandoned gold mines are scattered across South Africa, polluting the water with toxics and filling the air with noxious dust. For the millions of people who live around these derelict sites, the health impacts can be severe.

The Sushi Project: Farming Fish
And Rice in California's Fields

by jacques leslie
Innovative projects in California are using flooded rice fields to rear threatened species of Pacific salmon, mimicking the rich floodplains where juvenile salmon once thrived. This technique also shows promise for growing forage fish, which are increasingly threatened in the wild.

A Delicate Balance: Protecting
Northwest’s Glass Sponge Reefs

by nicola jones
Rare and extensive reefs of glass sponges are found only one place on earth – a stretch of the Pacific Northwest coast. Now, efforts are underway to identify and protect these fragile formations before they are obliterated by fishing vessels that trawl the bottom.

As the Fracking Boom Spreads,
One Watershed Draws the Line

by bruce stutz
After spreading across Pennsylvania, fracking for natural gas has run into government bans in the Delaware River watershed. The basins of the Delaware and nearby Susquehanna River offer a sharp contrast between what happens in places that allow fracking and those that do not.

Will Tidal and Wave Energy
Ever Live Up to Their Potential?

by sophia v. schweitzer
As solar and wind power grow, another renewable energy source with vast potential — the power of tides and waves — continues to lag far behind. But progress is now being made as governments and the private sector step up efforts to bring marine energy into the mainstream.

The Rapid and Startling Decline
Of World’s Vast Boreal Forests

by jim robbins
Scientists are becoming increasingly concerned about the fate of the huge boreal forest that spans from Scandinavia to northern Canada. Unprecedented warming in the region is jeopardizing the future of a critical ecosystem that makes up nearly a third of the earth’s forest cover.

Northern Forests Emerge
As the New Global Tinderbox

by ed struzik
Rapidly rising temperatures, changes in precipitation, and increased lightning strikes are leading to ever-larger wildfires in the northern forests of Alaska, Canada, and Siberia, with potentially severe ecological consequences.

For U.S. Tribes, a Movement to
Revive Native Foods and Lands

by cheryl katz
On ancestral lands, the Fond du Lac band in Minnesota is planting wild rice and restoring wetlands damaged by dams, industry, and logging. Their efforts are part of a growing trend by Native Americans to bring back traditional food sources and heal scarred landscapes.

e360 digest
Yale Environment 360 is
a publication of the
Yale School of Forestry
& Environmental Studies


Donate to Yale Environment 360
Yale Environment 360 Newsletter



About e360
Submission Guidelines

E360 en Español

Universia partnership
Yale Environment 360 articles are now available in Spanish and Portuguese on Universia, the online educational network.
Visit the site.


e360 Digest
Video Reports


Business & Innovation
Policy & Politics
Pollution & Health
Science & Technology


Antarctica and the Arctic
Central & South America
Middle East
North America

e360 VIDEO

The 2015 Yale e360 Video Contest winner documents a Northeastern town's bitter battle over a wind farm.
Watch the video.


The latest
from Yale
Environment 360
is now available for mobile devices at e360.yale.edu/mobile.

e360 VIDEO

A 2015 Yale e360 Video Contest winner captures stunning images of wild salmon runs in Alaska.
Watch the video.

e360 VIDEO

Colorado wildfires
An e360 video goes onto the front lines with Colorado firefighters confronting deadly blazes fueled by a hotter, drier climate.
Watch the video.


A three-part series Tainted Harvest looks at the soil pollution crisis in China, the threat it poses to the food supply, and the complexity of any cleanup.
Read the series.

header image
Top Image: aerial view of Iceland. © Google & TerraMetrics.