11 Aug 2014: Report

Africa’s Vultures Threatened
By An Assault on All Fronts

Vultures are being killed on an unprecedented scale across Africa, with the latest slaughter perpetrated by elephant poachers who poison the scavenging birds so they won’t give away the location of their activities.

by madeline bodin

When they arrived at South Africa’s Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, André Botha and his companions found that an elephant had died just inside the reserve’s fence. But instead of vultures and other scavengers tussling for their piece of the ecological bonanza, there was only eerie silence. The carcasses of 37 African white-backed vultures lay in the grass around the elephant.

Botha, the co-chair of the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) vulture specialist group, knew the whole story with one glance. The
In several West African countries, some species of vultures have declined 98 percent outside of protected areas.
elephant carcass had been poisoned to kill the vultures that would come to feed on it. The heads of 29 of the vultures had been cut off to be sold for traditional African medicine. The eight vultures with their heads still intact showed that the poisoned elephant continued to kill after the poacher departed, starting what could have been a significant vulture slaughter if Botha had not intervened.

It is the story, with some variations, of vultures all over Africa. In July 2013, roughly 600 vultures died after scavenging a dead elephant that had been poisoned near Namibia’s Bwabwata National Park. In the savannahs

View Gallery
Poisoned vultures

Andre Botha
Conservationist André Botha examines more than 30 vultures poisoned after feeding on an elephant carcass in a South African park.
of East Africa and southern Africa, there has been an estimated 50 to 60 percent decline in vultures. In the West African countries of Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger, four species of large vultures declined 98 percent outside of protected areas over 35 years, according to Jean-Marc Thiollay of France’s Laboratory of Ecology and Evolution in Paris.

Ralph Buij, a researcher with the Netherlands’ Alterra Wageningen University and Research Center, discovered similar population declines in another West African nation, Cameroon. In addition to the killing of vultures, factors such as habitat loss and declines in the wild ungulates on which vultures often feed are taking a toll. “Even the most common vulture species has declined 44 to 55 percent compared to 1970,” says Buij.

The reasons behind the killing of African vultures are far different — and often more malevolent — than the steep and widely publicized declines of vulture populations in India, Pakistan, and Nepal. There, vultures have been accidently poisoned after feeding on the carcasses of cattle treated with the veterinary anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, which is highly toxic to them. Five of the Indian subcontinent’s vulture species declined 95 percent from 1993 to 2000, according to BirdLife International. The loss of so many vultures has had major consequences, with cattle rotting in the streets, an upsurge of wild dogs, and an increase in rabies.

Sharp declines continued on the subcontinent through 2007, a year after India, Pakistan and Nepal banned the manufacture of the drug. Those countries now encourage the use of an alternative drug that is safe for vultures and also have created captive breeding programs. Since 2008, Indian vulture populations have leveled off or even increased slightly.

Vultures in Africa are being poisoned for several different reasons, both purposely and accidently. Recently, some of the more nefarious killers have been big game poachers, who have sharply intensified the slaughter of elephants for their ivory and rhinoceroses for their horns, which are valued in Asia for their purported medicinal purposes. In the past three or four years, the poachers have realized that circling vultures are tipping off the
By poisoning elephant carcasses, poachers can remove the vultures that could draw attention to their crimes.
authorities to their crimes, so they poison them. Carbofuran, purple grains that are intended as an insecticide, is the most commonly used poison.

“Poachers will kill an elephant and poison the carcass to remove vultures from the environment,” says Botha. “It’s rampant in East Africa right now.”

All over the world, farmers protect their livestock by killing carnivores. In Africa, the favored method is poison. “In Kenya, we got our first wind of this situation when the poisoning of lions, leopards, and hyenas became a big issue again,” says Kenya-based Darcy Ogada, assistant director of Africa programs for The Peregrine Fund. Farmers set out livestock carcasses salted with poison. “Vultures come in by the hundreds and die by the hundreds,” she said. The vulture deaths far outnumber the carnivores that the farmers intended to kill.

Poisoning vultures for traditional African medicine also is taking a toll. When Buij investigated why the vultures of Cameroon were disappearing, he found that the demand for vulture parts for traditional African medicine in Nigeria was so strong that it had nearly wiped out several species. Nigerians were turning to the neighboring countries of Cameroon, Niger,

View Gallery
Vultures in Masai Mara Game Reserve, Kenya

      Jerry Friedman
Lappet-faced vultures and an African white-backed vulture in a game reserve in Kenya.
Benin, Chad, and Sudan to buy vultures, most of which are killed by poisoning, according to Buij.

The use of vultures in traditional medicine is limited mostly to West Africa. Vultures are believed to bring luck and to be able to see the future, says Buij. The vultures’ clairvoyance is associated with their heads, making that body part particularly valuable. Sales are strong when there is a large lottery jackpot. South Africa also has a tradition of using vultures in traditional medicine and vulture heads also are prized, Botha says.

Buij found that in Cameroon, while the heads of the vultures were sent to Nigeria, the meat of the birds was eaten locally. In Nigeria, a quarter of the vultures sold were intended as food.

In Africa, using chemical poisons to kill wild animals for the bushmeat trade and for use in traditional medicine is common, according to Ogada. Sometimes the cause of death is hidden from the consumer, but in some places poisoned bushmeat and traditional medicines are knowingly consumed — perhaps, she says, drawing on a history of hunting with arrows dipped in plant-based poisons.

There are no easy solutions to the problem of poisoned vultures in Africa. In April, the Vulture Conservation Foundation; the government of Andalusia, Spain; and Working Dogs for Conservation organized a conference so that scientists from around the world could discuss the African vulture crisis and see first-hand the workings of Andalusia’s comprehensive anti-poisoning program.

Spain is one of Europe’s vulture hotspots, home not only to European species, but also vultures that migrate from Africa. Its culture of farmers and hunters poisoning predators was so ingrained that it threatened
To date, most of the work to conserve vultures in Africa has focused on documenting the birds’ decline.
several wildlife species, particularly eagles and vultures. To protect these species, Andalusia has over the last decade strengthened its laws against poisoning, started prosecuting poisoners, and raised fines as high as 200,000 Euros (about $270,000.) The group that investigates wildlife poisonings in Andalusia includes two teams of dogs trained to sniff out poisons in carcasses and food left as bait. Investigators are taught to recognize the symptoms of poisoning in the field and to carefully collect evidence. A forensics lab uses liquid and gas chromatography to screen for more than 100 poisons.

“We have some experience and luckily managed to reduce the impact of poison by about 60 percent in ten years, but this is a very hard job,” says Iñigo Fajardo, who represented Andalusia’s anti-poison program at the conference. Fajardo and many others would like to see similar programs protecting Africa’s vultures. But is such a program practical in the developing world?

“I believe the legal system is the strongest practical way of addressing poisoning, and I believe we need it even in third world countries,” says Martin Odino, a researcher affiliated with the National Museums of Kenya who works as an independent researcher on bird poisoning issues.

Odino advocates giving Africans an economic incentive to conserve wildlife, such as hiring locals to scout for poachers and lead bird-watching tours, a tactic he has tested with some success in Kenya. To date, most of

The Dirty War Against
Africa’s Remaining Rhinos

The Dirty War Against Africa’s Remaining Rhinos
The killing of rhinos has escalated dramatically, especially in South Africa, Adam Welz writes, where the slaughter is being orchestrated by brazen, highly organized gangs that smuggle the rhinos' horns to black markets in China and Southeast Asia.
the work to conserve vultures in Africa has focused on documenting the decline. Unlike India, in Africa there were few baseline population studies to compare with recent surveys. One of the first international organizations to take interest in African vultures was the U.S.-based Peregrine Fund. Munir Virani, Africa program director for the fund, has created a program to mentor Masai youth about the ecological value of vultures. He is also working in Kenya to install lights to deter lions and other predators from killing livestock, as vultures are the most common victims when livestock owners retaliate by poisoning the predators.

Hopes for curbing wildlife poisoning and saving vultures are highest for countries that have relatively stable governments, such as Kenya, or where the country is relatively wealthy, such as South Africa. In fact, when Botha investigated the vulture poisoning in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, his team was soon joined by the police, who gathered two vulture carcasses as evidence and recorded the sex and species of the rest.

To prevent further poisoning, the group piled dry wood on the elephant carcass, lit a fire, and burned the elephant to ashes.

But even governments that might be able to spare some resources to prevent the extinction of African vultures lack the political will, says Ogada. Often it takes pressure from outside Africa to create a change. For example, she says, little happened to curb lion poisonings until about five years ago, after the U.S. television news program, “60 Minutes,” aired a report.

However, for a bird that may range across countries and even continents, success in one country is not enough. Botha reports that when the 600 vultures were poisoned last year in Namibia, people noticed fewer vultures in the southern Kalahari of South Africa, hundreds of miles away. “Poison,” says Fajardo, “has neither eyes, nor heart, and does not respect boundaries.”

POSTED ON 11 Aug 2014 IN Biodiversity Africa 


Please save and protect these amazing birds!
Posted by SUSANNA MINACHEILI on 12 Aug 2014

It really hurts to watch and see history approaching to repeat itself as it did with Quagga extinction in August 1883.

I wish all of us all over the world may well be concerned about the destruction mankind is doing to the world and try to stop it. Just imagine what will happen in future if vultures are killed in hundreds as it happens now, are we going to tell the generation that once upon a time there was a vulture called White-backed vulture, but there is no one left in the whole world because vultures were poinsoned by poachers. Are we sitting and watching until it is too late?

Posted by Rebeccca Mabuza on 13 Aug 2014

A far more important fact is that they clean up decaying corpses (animal and human), and in so doing restrict the spread of deadly diseases — anthrax, botulism and rabies, to name a few.
Posted by James Ball on 15 Aug 2014

Taking this quote from a story I read recently, here:


(I use it to bolster myself as we battle fracking in Southern Illinois where we live atop two seismic zones, between two rivers that commonly flood, and amidst a population that has been plundering the natural resources ever since they arrived. The normalization of corrupting nature should have a name of its own. Anyway, here's the plan. I think it works for grasping a problem of this magnitude with the vultures as well.)

"It’s possible that when you see the full extent of the campaign of confusion, you will drift into irritation and anger. You may want to blame the bad advisors—the freelance lifeguards whose real goal was often something other than swimmer safety. You may, especially, lose faith in mainstream media as a reliable source of credible information. Finally, you might begin to lose hope. You might come to question our ability to have a credible public conversation about science and to arrive at a reasonable set of policies to address climate change. You might be tempted to throw up your hands in despair.

That would be the worst possible result. Just by reading this article, you have made the first, critical step toward being part of the solution. Information like this will at least help inoculate you against the public relations spin, the confusion and misinformation that has led us through two decades of inaction. At best, it will inspire you to learn more about climate change and more about the practical, affordable, and essential things that we all need to do to conquer the problem.

Our species has proved itself capable of great stupidity and palpable evil. Human history is full of pogroms, holocausts, wars, genocides and societal collapses. Equally, however, we have proved ourselves intelligent and adaptable. When we stepped back from the brink of global nuclear annihilation, we showed that when the conversation is open and accurate, we can make good, even altruistic decisions.

It’s time for such a decision now. It’s time for good people to inform themselves, to help lead and guide their families, their friends, and their neighbors back from a path that threatens the habitability of planet Earth to one that will be sensible and sustainable..."

I stand with you. Let's care about this.

Posted by beth martell on 16 Aug 2014


Comments are moderated and will be reviewed before they are posted to ensure they are on topic, relevant, and not abusive. They may be edited for length and clarity. By filling out this form, you give Yale Environment 360 permission to publish this comment.

Email address 
Please type the text shown in the graphic.

madeline bodinABOUT THE AUTHOR
Madeline Bodin is a freelance writer specializing in wildlife conservation science. She lives in Vermont. Her writing has explored the fate of New England’s largest bat cave, the forensic techniques used to solve wildlife crimes, and the mafia-like tactics of cowbirds. Her work has appeared in Scientific American, Popular Mechanics, National Wildlife, and many other publications.



Why Brazil’s New Pledges On
Carbon Emissions Fall Short

Brazil has won international acclaim for curbing deforestation. But Brazilian forestry expert Maria Fernanda Gebara says her country has not gone far enough in its pledges to cut carbon emissions and continues to have a dismal record on developing wind and solar power.

A Delicate Balance: Protecting
Northwest’s Glass Sponge Reefs

Rare and extensive reefs of glass sponges are found only one place on earth – a stretch of the Pacific Northwest coast. Now, efforts are underway to identify and protect these fragile formations before they are obliterated by fishing vessels that trawl the bottom.

For U.S. Tribes, a Movement to
Revive Native Foods and Lands

On ancestral lands, the Fond du Lac band in Minnesota is planting wild rice and restoring wetlands damaged by dams, industry, and logging. Their efforts are part of a growing trend by Native Americans to bring back traditional food sources and heal scarred landscapes.

How One African Village Learned
To Live with Its Wildlife and Prosper

The second runner-up in the Yale Environment 360 Video Contest tells the story of the residents of a forest village in central Mozambique who have helped create a tourist destination centered on an elephant population that once wreaked havoc in their community.

Natura 2000: EU Reserves Are
Facing Development Pressures

An astonishing 18 percent of the European Union’s land area is protected under a network of preserves known as Natura 2000. Now, at the urging of business interests and farmers, the EU is examining whether regulations on development in these areas should be loosened.


MORE IN Reports

For Storing Electricity, Utilities
Are Turning to Pumped Hydro

by john roach
High-tech batteries may be garnering the headlines. But utilities from Spain to China are increasingly relying on pumped storage hydroelectricity – first used in the 1890s – to overcome the intermittent nature of wind and solar power.

On Thin Ice: Big Northern Lakes
Are Being Rapidly Transformed

by cheryl katz
As temperatures rise, the world’s iconic northern lakes are undergoing major changes that include swiftly warming waters, diminished ice cover, and outbreaks of harmful algae. Now, a global consortium of scientists is trying to assess the toll.

The Haunting Legacy of
South Africa’s Gold Mines

by mark olalde
Thousands of abandoned gold mines are scattered across South Africa, polluting the water with toxics and filling the air with noxious dust. For the millions of people who live around these derelict sites, the health impacts can be severe.

The Sushi Project: Farming Fish
And Rice in California's Fields

by jacques leslie
Innovative projects in California are using flooded rice fields to rear threatened species of Pacific salmon, mimicking the rich floodplains where juvenile salmon once thrived. This technique also shows promise for growing forage fish, which are increasingly threatened in the wild.

A Delicate Balance: Protecting
Northwest’s Glass Sponge Reefs

by nicola jones
Rare and extensive reefs of glass sponges are found only one place on earth – a stretch of the Pacific Northwest coast. Now, efforts are underway to identify and protect these fragile formations before they are obliterated by fishing vessels that trawl the bottom.

As the Fracking Boom Spreads,
One Watershed Draws the Line

by bruce stutz
After spreading across Pennsylvania, fracking for natural gas has run into government bans in the Delaware River watershed. The basins of the Delaware and nearby Susquehanna River offer a sharp contrast between what happens in places that allow fracking and those that do not.

Will Tidal and Wave Energy
Ever Live Up to Their Potential?

by sophia v. schweitzer
As solar and wind power grow, another renewable energy source with vast potential — the power of tides and waves — continues to lag far behind. But progress is now being made as governments and the private sector step up efforts to bring marine energy into the mainstream.

The Rapid and Startling Decline
Of World’s Vast Boreal Forests

by jim robbins
Scientists are becoming increasingly concerned about the fate of the huge boreal forest that spans from Scandinavia to northern Canada. Unprecedented warming in the region is jeopardizing the future of a critical ecosystem that makes up nearly a third of the earth’s forest cover.

Northern Forests Emerge
As the New Global Tinderbox

by ed struzik
Rapidly rising temperatures, changes in precipitation, and increased lightning strikes are leading to ever-larger wildfires in the northern forests of Alaska, Canada, and Siberia, with potentially severe ecological consequences.

For U.S. Tribes, a Movement to
Revive Native Foods and Lands

by cheryl katz
On ancestral lands, the Fond du Lac band in Minnesota is planting wild rice and restoring wetlands damaged by dams, industry, and logging. Their efforts are part of a growing trend by Native Americans to bring back traditional food sources and heal scarred landscapes.

Yale Environment 360 is
a publication of the
Yale School of Forestry
& Environmental Studies


Donate to Yale Environment 360
Yale Environment 360 Newsletter



About e360
Submission Guidelines

E360 en Español

Universia partnership
Yale Environment 360 articles are now available in Spanish and Portuguese on Universia, the online educational network.
Visit the site.


e360 Digest
Video Reports


Business & Innovation
Policy & Politics
Pollution & Health
Science & Technology


Antarctica and the Arctic
Central & South America
Middle East
North America

e360 VIDEO

The 2015 Yale e360 Video Contest winner documents a Northeastern town's bitter battle over a wind farm.
Watch the video.


The latest
from Yale
Environment 360
is now available for mobile devices at e360.yale.edu/mobile.

e360 VIDEO

A 2015 Yale e360 Video Contest winner captures stunning images of wild salmon runs in Alaska.
Watch the video.

e360 VIDEO

Colorado wildfires
An e360 video goes onto the front lines with Colorado firefighters confronting deadly blazes fueled by a hotter, drier climate.
Watch the video.


A three-part series Tainted Harvest looks at the soil pollution crisis in China, the threat it poses to the food supply, and the complexity of any cleanup.
Read the series.

header image
Top Image: aerial view of Iceland. © Google & TerraMetrics.