Along Cuba’s Coast, The Last Best
Coral Reefs in the Caribbean Thrive
A giant grouper, with a shark in the background, cruises a section of coral reef in Cuba. View the photo essay.
The enduring image of Cuba is of a country locked in a time warp, with 1950s American sedans cruising the streets, colonial-era buildings in disrepair, and six decades of strict state control over the economy and a U.S. embargo keeping development at bay.
This frozen-in-amber quality also applies to many of the marine ecosystems surrounding the Caribbean’s largest island, with tremendous benefits for Cuba’s aquatic life. While coral reef cover has declined by 50 percent throughout the Caribbean in recent decades, Cuba has managed to retain some of the most pristine and biodiverse coral reef environments on earth. A lack of coastal development, limited tourism, relatively small amounts of runoff flowing into the sea, tight controls on commercial fishing, and the establishment of extensive marine protected areas have all combined to give Cuba the most remarkable coral reef environments in the Caribbean.
In a new book, Reef Libre
, photographer and diver Robert Wintner — known as “Snorkel Bob” — has documented the beauty of Cuba’s coral reefs. Many of the photographs were taken in the crown jewel of Cuba’s marine reserve system — the 840-square mile Gardens of the Queen National Park, or Los Jardines de la Reina
. Located 60 miles off Cuba’s southern coast, the park encompasses a 30-mile-long barrier reef ecosystem where an astonishing assemblage of underwater life — elkhorn coral, scores of species of tropical fish, 500-pound Goliath grouper, and large numbers of sharks — continues to thrive.
As Wintner notes, the key question now is how Cuba’s coral reef environments will fare as the country reestablishes diplomatic relations with the United States and faces an inevitable boom of tourism and coastal development. The government has vowed to protect 25 percent of the nation’s waters as marine reserves. But it remains to be seen whether Cuba can escape the rampant coastal development, overfishing, and other problems that have taken such a heavy toll on coral reefs elsewhere in the Caribbean.
— Fen Montaigne
02 Mar 2015
View the photo essay.
PHOTOGRAPHER Robert Wintner
is a diver, author, and founder of Snorkel Bob's shops throughout Hawaii. His latest book, Reef Libre: An In-Depth Look at Cuban Exceptionalism & the Last, Best Reefs in the World
, was published last month. Wintner is active in Hawaii's conservation community and has led campaigns against the aquarium trade in Hawaii and around the world.
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Documenting the Swift Change
Wrought by Global Warming
For 25 years, photographer Peter Essick has traveled the world for National Geographic Magazine
, with many of his recent assignments focusing on the causes and consequences of climate change. In a Yale Environment 360
photo essay, we present a gallery of images Essick took while on assignment in Antarctica, Greenland, and other far-flung locales.
Focusing a Lens on
China's Environmental Challenges
In a Yale Environment 360
photo essay, Beijing-based photojournalist Sean Gallagher chronicles China’s widespread water and air pollution, the battle against the desertification that has spread across the country's northern regions, and the threats to the nation's biodiversity.
Yale Environment 360 is
a publication of the
Yale School of Forestry
& Environmental Studies
Yale Environment 360
articles are now available in Spanish and Portuguese on Universia
, the online educational network. Visit the site.
Business & Innovation
Policy & Politics
Pollution & Health
Science & Technology
Antarctica and the Arctic
Central & South America
Tribal people and ranchers join together to stop a project that would haul coal across their Montana land. Watch the video.
is now available for mobile devices at e360.yale.edu/mobile
An aerial view of why Europe’s per capita carbon emissions are less than 50 percent of those in the U.S. View the photos.
The 2015 Yale e360 Video Contest winner documents a Northeastern town's bitter battle over a wind farm. Watch the video.
video series looks at the staggering amount of food wasted in the U.S. – a problem with major human and environmental costs. Watch the video.
video goes onto the front lines with Colorado firefighters confronting deadly blazes fueled by a hotter, drier climate. Watch the video.
A three-part series Tainted Harvest
looks at the soil pollution crisis in China, the threat it poses to the food supply, and the complexity of any cleanup. Read the series.