15 Jan 2015: Report

For Vulnerable Barrier Islands,
A Rush to Rebuild on U.S. Coast

Despite warnings from scientists, new construction continues on U.S. barrier islands that have been devastated by storms. The flood protection projects that accompany this development can have harmful consequences for coastal ecosystems being buffeted by climate change.

by rona kobell

Six years ago, Hurricane Ike nearly wiped the barrier island of Bolivar off the Texas map. A 17-foot storm surge destroyed nearly every home in some communities and killed at least 15 people. Long-time residents feared the wild, sandy spit of land between the Gulf of Mexico and Galveston Bay would never recover.

Today, Bolivar is definitely back, and bigger than ever. Small fishing cabins and trailers have given way to candy-colored homes that sit on pilings more than a dozen feet above the ground. What was once a down-home,
With rising sea levels and intensifying storms, experts believe some barrier islands should be abandoned.
everyone-knows-everyone kind of place has become a weekend retreat for wealthy Houstonians. Many who grew up fishing at Rollover Pass and biking along the Jane Long Memorial Highway can’t afford to stay; real estate prices have nearly doubled.

Longtime resident Cindy Rodriguez is both surprised and delighted at the change in her hometown’s fortunes.

“There was talk of it being abandoned,” she remembers.

Many coastal zone experts believe that it should have been. With sea levels rising and a changing climate leading to more intense storms, many of the United States’ barrier islands will face existential threats this century, experts contend. But as the aggressive rebuilding of Bolivar Island demonstrates, the warnings of coastal planners, ecologists, and insurance companies often fall on deaf ears.

Along the New Jersey and New York coasts after Hurricane Sandy, down the shores of Virginia and North Carolina following major storms, and across
Bolivar Texas
Rona Kobell
New homes on the barrier island of Bolivar, off the coast of Texas, rebuilt after Hurricane Ike in 2008.
the Gulf of Mexico coast in the wake of recent hurricanes, rebuilding has taken place on dozens of vulnerable barrier islands. Not only does this recurring reconstruction place billions of dollars of property at risk, but it often means the construction of hugely expensive flood protection and storm-control projects that can harm coastal ecosystems.

Hardened shorelines take away crucial habitat for turtles and waterfowl. Jetties interfere with the growth of sea grasses that crabs and small worms need to hide from predators. Dams, locks, and other barriers change a waterway’s salinity and its sediment content, disrupting the natural growth of oysters, clams, and other salinity-sensitive species.

Efforts to create nature reserves and national seashores on U.S. barrier islands continue. But as the current construction boom on Bolivar Island shows, these conservation initiatives often run up against powerful business and political interests.

“I think it’s ultimately foolish [to develop these islands], and I’m not alone in saying that,” said William Boicourt, an oceanographer at the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. “They’re in a dynamic process, and even if you put in a man-made barrier to slow that down, it’s ultimately a losing game.”

Historically, residents of barrier islands have not always looked to the government for millions of dollars in salvation efforts when the sea encroached. Often, they simply left. When Hog Island, on the Virginia Coast, eroded to the point where it was uninhabitable in the 1930s, residents barged their houses to the nearby towns of Willis Wharf and Oyster. Similar tales have repeated themselves in Texas and Louisiana, where barrier islands were popular
Repeatedly rebuilding barrier islands like Bolivar carries a hefty price tag.
refuges for pirates but often not considered fit for long-term structures.

But in the mid-20th century, planners and developers began to view the nation’s barrier islands as resort towns in the making — a steady source of tourism dollars, property tax revenue, and construction jobs. Federal and state governments spent big on bridges, dunes, beach replenishment, and public piers to encourage settlement. Government-backed flood insurance encouraged that process, as did the federal government assuming the role of rebuilder-in-chief, said Rob Young, a geologist who directs the program for the study of developed shorelines at Western Carolina University.

“Why do we rebuild on barrier islands?” asked Young. “Because the people who are doing the rebuilding are making a sound economic decision.” The owners may rebuild the home, he said, but “the rest of us are putting back all the infrastructure. We’re raising the road. We’re putting back the beach. The rest of us are assuming all of the risks.”

The people came. Galveston, located on a barrier island across the bay from Bolivar, is a city of 50,000, home to both one of the country’s largest petrochemical corridors and the University of Texas Medical Branch. More than 7,000 people now inhabit Ocean City, Maryland year-round; hundreds of thousands more visit every summer. In Alabama, 1,300 people live year-round on Dauphin Island, a spit of sand in the Gulf of Mexico that has been battered by more than 10 hurricanes and major storms in the past 35 years, but has been repeatedly rebuilt. North Carolina's Outer Banks has year-round residents on many of its barrier islands. New York’s Fire Island has a small year-round population and a thriving summer one.

If damage from recent storms demonstrates anything, it’s that leaving barrier islands alone makes good ecological sense. These skinny, sandy shoals are lands on the move, shifting, gaining, and losing sand in rhythm with the ocean currents. Their highest grounds are sandy dunes. The rest is wetlands and beachfront, with an ocean or gulf on one side and a bay on the other. They protect the mainland from floods and are prime habitat for migrating birds.

Repeatedly rebuilding barrier islands like Bolivar — whose highest land is just six feet above sea level — carries a hefty price tag. The proposed Ike Dike that will protect Galveston and Bolivar on its Gulf side is estimated to
Barrier islands are ‘inherently mobile’ and not safe for ‘human facilities with a fixed position,’ a report states.
cost at least $3 billion. At least $80 million has flowed into rebuilding Dauphin Island, much of it from federal funds. And Hurricane Sandy’s devastation in 2012 cost at least $65 billion. Since then, there has been little serious discussion of retreating from New Jersey’s 127 miles of heavily developed Atlantic Ocean shoreline, which includes many miles of barrier islands.

In a 2014 report, the National Research Council concluded that barrier islands, as “inherently mobile landforms,” aren’t safe for “human facilities with a fixed position.” They are still losing sand, the report said, but they are not gaining it back. That dearth of new sediment could lead to complete submergence of some islands, the report said.

After Hurricane Ike pummeled the Texas coast in 2008, state officials began talking up plans for a Lone Star Coastal National Recreation Area that would protect undeveloped areas along barrier islands and wetlands in the Galveston region. The proposed reserve, which is now before Congress and enjoys bipartisan support, would include 700,000 acres of tidal marshland and more than 350,000 acres of bay and estuarine areas, including parts of Bolivar Island.

Bolivar Island has undergone an unprecedented building boom since Hurricane Ike. Before Ike, the island had a wild feel. Its housing stock was a hodge-podge of some well-built and large brick structures mixed with smaller, homey places. The rebuilt Bolivar retains that feel in itrs older sections. But resorts with names like The Biscayne and Gulfport Village are far more upscale. Locals have taken to calling them bird houses because of their height, color, and décor.

After the storm, many long-term residents could not afford to return. Rebuilding cost too much, and insurance reimbursements took too long. That inability to come back opened the door for developers who had the cash and real-estate agents who had ready buyers in the Houston area, one of the country’s wealthier metropolitan regions. The desire for an upscale and relatively affordable beach house meant a rush to rebuild Bolivar at a pace not seen in other parts of Galveston County. As of 2013, the county had issued 1,542 building permits for the Bolivar peninsula, and only 996 for other unincorporated county areas, according to the Houston Chronicle.
Bolivar would be better ‘as a wild green buffer of flood protection than having it built out,’ says one conservationist.

During a recent visit, “For Sale” signs dotted the roads, along with billboards urging new lot owners to call custom builders. Even under rainy skies, builders were working, framing out houses on raised platforms and clearing old debris.

Richard Gibbons, conservation director of the Houston Audubon Society, said he is “very, very surprised” at the pace of development.

“The Bolivar peninsula would be much better serving as a wild green buffer of flood protection rather than having it built out,” he said.

The American Bird Conservancy has designated part of Bolivar Island as a Globally Important Bird Area. Some winters, more than 10,000 American avocets descend upon its still-wild parts. Plovers, spoonbills, pelicans, egrets and loons are among the species living there year-round or migrating.

Since the 1980s, the Houston Audubon Society has been buying up property on Bolivar for conservation with other nonprofit partners. It now owns more than 2,000 of the peninsula’s 11,689 acres. After Ike, Houston Audubon sensed an opportunity to purchase more. But Gibbons said the group has given up on acquiring any property in Crystal Beach, where pastel houses line an expansive shoreline with only a thin ribbon of dunes separating the sea from homes.

With federal dollars for coastal protection becoming ever tighter, barrier islands have to compete with places like New Orleans, Miami, and Norfolk for funds. Because of high reconstruction costs, state and university officials discussed moving the University of Texas Medical Branch from Galveston inland to Austin — a move that would have cost billions of dollars and meant the loss of a major employer. In the end, the university and stayed on the island, in part because rebuilding the facility’s high biosecurity labs would have been extremely expensive.

But barrier islands with less political clout won’t be so lucky, said Joe Fehrer, a project manager for The Nature Conservancy’s Virginia Coast Reserve. “The small communities are the places that just are going to go away,” Fehrer said.

Fehrer knows that story too well. His father, Joe Fehrer, Sr., had the difficult task of telling those who bought lots on Assateague Island in the

ALSO FROM YALE e360

A Year After Sandy, The Wrong
Policy on Rebuilding the Coast

a year after Sandy
One year after Hurricane Sandy devastated parts of the U.S. East Coast, the government is spending billions to replenish beaches that will only be swallowed again by rising seas and future storms. It’s time to develop coastal policies that take into account new climate realities, argues geologist Rob Young.
READ MORE
1950s and 1960s that they would never have a chance to build their dream homes on the Maryland barrier island famous for its wild ponies. After the Ash Wednesday storm of 1962 flooded thousands of “buildable” lots, the National Parks Service bought the island.

Assateague’s purchase was part of a trend toward preserving barrier islands for their most appreciative visitors: migratory birds that rely on the shifting sands to expose horseshoe crab eggs, small worms, and other food sources. Among the most precarious is the migratory rufa red knot, which in December became the first bird named to the endangered species list because of climate change and rising seas.

A chain of barrier islands south of Assateague is now part of the Virginia Coast Reserve, which Fehrer helps manage. Several of the islands once had development plans on the books. But The Nature Conservancy stepped in and now owns parts of 18 barrier islands, including Hog Island. It also owns much of Cedar Island, where a developer built dozens of homes on the ocean side in the 1980s; nearly all were in the surf two decades later.



POSTED ON 15 Jan 2015 IN Biodiversity Climate Climate Oceans Oceans Policy & Politics Antarctica and the Arctic North America 

COMMENTS


Thank you. This is one of the most thoughtful and scientifically sound articles on the current and future state of our coasts that I have read in a long time. Please continue to preach your message.
Posted by Chris McLindon on 15 Jan 2015


"In the end, the university stayed on the island, in
part because rebuilding the facility’s high biosecurity
labs would have been extremely expensive."

Let me get this straight, the University of Texas
Medical Branch has a high biosecurity lab built on a
barrier island?!
Posted by B Maier on 02 Mar 2015


Dear,
This is very good and innovative and definitely
appreciable. To me it is splendid and unique and
no doubt of its success. However I can include
my idea with you if you feel encouraged to give
your thoughtful mind to go through it and give
your valuable comments on it. Henceforth I must
expect from you for its safeguard and of its
Intellectual Property Right. I guarantee you my
one would be an everlasting barrier with every
prospect of continuous improvement of the
dikes/barriers. If you feel interested with sincere
approach I want to share it with you. If you have
confidence on me please write me soon with all
believe and trust. I have all my confidence on
you pl. I do not want any benefit out of it except
the pride of doing something spectacular for the
ill-fated people suffering from water upsurges.
By the by I did give a table talk presentation
since the Embassy was not prepared for a
deliberate one, at the Embassy of Netherlands.
They as I am reported, are studying it with their
experts. Thank you very much.
Posted by Dr. Anwar on 19 Oct 2016


POST A COMMENT

Comments are moderated and will be reviewed before they are posted to ensure they are on topic, relevant, and not abusive. They may be edited for length and clarity. By filling out this form, you give Yale Environment 360 permission to publish this comment.

Name 
Email address 
Comment 
 
Please type the text shown in the graphic.


rona kobellABOUT THE AUTHOR
Rona Kobell is a staff writer for the Chesapeake Bay Journal and the co-producer of "Midday on the Bay," a monthly radio show on WYPR out of Baltimore. A former environmental reporter for the Baltimore Sun, she has been recently published in Slate, Modern Farmer, The Boston Globe, Grist, and the Columbia Journalism Review.

 
 

RELATED ARTICLES


An Unusually Warm Arctic Year:
Sign of Future Climate Turmoil?

This year will almost certainly go down as the warmest on record in the Arctic, with autumn temperatures soaring 36 degrees F above normal. In a Yale e360 interview, climatologist Jennifer Francis explains why a swiftly warming Arctic may have profound effects on global weather.
READ MORE

How Warming Threatens the Genetic
Diversity of Species, and Why It Matters

Research on stoneflies in Glacier National Park indicates that global warming is reducing the genetic diversity of some species, compromising their ability to evolve as conditions change. These findings have major implications for how biodiversity will be affected by climate change.
READ MORE

At Standing Rock, A Battle
Over Fossil Fuels and Land

The Native American-led protest against the Dakota Access pipeline has gained global attention. In an e360 interview, indigenous expert Kyle Powys Whyte talks about the history of fossil fuel production on tribal lands and the role native groups are playing in fighting climate change.
READ MORE

African Wetlands Project: A Win
For the Climate and the People?

In Senegal and other developing countries, multinational companies are investing in programs to restore mangrove forests and other wetlands that sequester carbon. But critics say these initiatives should not focus on global climate goals at the expense of the local people’s livelihoods.
READ MORE

How Climate Change Could Jam
The World's Ocean Circulation

Scientists are closely monitoring a key current in the North Atlantic to see if rising sea temperatures and increased freshwater from melting ice are altering the “ocean conveyor belt” — a vast oceanic stream that plays a major role in the global climate system.
READ MORE

 

MORE IN Reports


How Tracking Product Sources
May Help Save World’s Forests

by fred pearce
Global businesses are increasingly pledging to obtain key commodities only from sources that do not contribute to deforestation. Now, nonprofit groups are deploying data tools that help hold these companies to their promises by tracing the origins of everything from soy to timber to beef.
READ MORE

How Warming Threatens the Genetic
Diversity of Species, and Why It Matters

by jim robbins
Research on stoneflies in Glacier National Park indicates that global warming is reducing the genetic diversity of some species, compromising their ability to evolve as conditions change. These findings have major implications for how biodiversity will be affected by climate change.
READ MORE

Full Speed Ahead: Shipping
Plans Grow as Arctic Ice Fades

by ed struzik
Russia, China, and other nations are stepping up preparations for the day when large numbers of cargo ships will be traversing a once-icebound Arctic Ocean. But with vessels already plying these waters, experts say the time is now to prepare for the inevitable environmental fallout.
READ MORE

How Forensics Are Boosting
Battle Against Wildlife Trade

by heather millar
From rapid genetic analysis to spectrography, high-tech tools are being used to track down and prosecute perpetrators of the illegal wildlife trade. The new advances in forensics offer promise in stopping the trafficking in endangered species.
READ MORE

African Wetlands Project: A Win
For the Climate and the People?

by winifred bird
In Senegal and other developing countries, multinational companies are investing in programs to restore mangrove forests and other wetlands that sequester carbon. But critics say these initiatives should not focus on global climate goals at the expense of the local people’s livelihoods.
READ MORE

Ghost Forests: How Rising Seas
Are Killing Southern Woodlands

by roger real drouin
A steady increase in sea levels is pushing saltwater into U.S. wetlands, killing trees from Florida as far north as New Jersey. But with sea level projected to rise by as much as six feet this century, the destruction of coastal forests is expected to become a worsening problem worldwide.
READ MORE

On College Campuses, Signs of
Progress on Renewable Energy

by ben goldfarb
U.S. colleges and universities are increasingly deploying solar arrays and other forms of renewable energy. Yet most institutions have a long way to go if they are to meet their goal of being carbon neutral in the coming decades.
READ MORE

For European Wind Industry,
Offshore Projects Are Booming

by christian schwägerl
As Europe’s wind energy production rises dramatically, offshore turbines are proliferating from the Irish Sea to the Baltic Sea. It’s all part of the European Union’s strong push away from fossil fuels and toward renewables.
READ MORE

In New Ozone Alert, A Warning
Of Harm to Plants and to People

by jim robbins
Scientists are still trying to unravel the damaging effects of ground-level ozone on life on earth. But as the world warms, their concerns about the impact of this highly toxic, pollution-caused gas are growing.
READ MORE

The Rising Environmental Toll
Of China’s Offshore Island Grab

by mike ives
To stake its claim in the strategic South China Sea, China is building airstrips, ports, and other facilities on disputed islands and reefs. Scientists say the activities are destroying key coral reef ecosystems and will heighten the risks of a fisheries collapse in the region.
READ MORE


e360 digest
Yale
Yale Environment 360 is
a publication of the
Yale School of Forestry
& Environmental Studies
.

SEARCH e360



Donate to Yale Environment 360
Yale Environment 360 Newsletter


CONNECT


ABOUT

About e360
Contact
Submission Guidelines
Reprints

E360 en Español

Universia partnership
Yale Environment 360 articles are now available in Spanish and Portuguese on Universia, the online educational network.
Visit the site.


DEPARTMENTS

Opinion
Reports
Analysis
Interviews
Forums
e360 Digest
Podcasts
Video Reports

TOPICS

Biodiversity
Business & Innovation
Climate
Energy
Forests
Oceans
Policy & Politics
Pollution & Health
Science & Technology
Sustainability
Urbanization
Water

REGIONS

Antarctica and the Arctic
Africa
Asia
Australia
Central & South America
Europe
Middle East
North America

e360 VIDEO

“video
A look at how acidifying oceans could threaten the Dungeness crab, one of the most valuable fisheries on the U.S. West Coast.
Watch the video.

e360 MOBILE

Mobile
The latest
from Yale
Environment 360
is now available for mobile devices at e360.yale.edu/mobile.

e360 PHOTO ESSAY

“Alaska
An aerial view of why Europe’s per capita carbon emissions are less than 50 percent of those in the U.S.
View the photos.

e360 VIDEO

“Ashaninka
An indigenous tribe’s deadly fight to save its ancestral land in the Amazon rainforest from logging.
Learn more.

e360 VIDEO

Food waste
An e360 video series looks at the staggering amount of food wasted in the U.S. – a problem with major human and environmental costs.
Watch the video.

e360 VIDEO

Choco rainforest Cacao
Residents of the Chocó Rainforest in Ecuador are choosing to plant cacao over logging in an effort to slow deforestation.
Watch the video.

e360 VIDEO

“video
Tribal people and ranchers join together to stop a project that would haul coal across their Montana land.
Watch the video.

OF INTEREST



Yale