20 Apr 2015: Report

On the Internet, Illegal Trade
In Endangered Wildlife Thrives

On eBay and elsewhere on the Internet, illegal wildlife and wildlife parts — from elephant ivory to tiger skins to monkey and crocodile skulls — are being sold. Bringing an end to this illicit activity is proving to be a daunting challenge.

by ted williams

Illegal online trafficking in imperiled wildlife is rampant, and attempted controls are few and largely ineffective. Log onto most any international Internet store that deals in wildlife or wildlife parts, and you’ll find a charnel house of endangered and protected species hawked openly or

View Gallery

Peninsula Humane Society & SPCA
Skulls of a sable antelope, monkey, and Siamese crocodile that were purchased on eBay.
under phony names and in violation of U.S. law and international agreements.

The world’s largest online marketplace by far, eBay, is one of the few that makes a serious effort to control wildlife smuggling by deleting ads for illegal products — but only the few it notices or hears about. Chris Nagano of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Endangered Species Division is a trained lepidopterist. When I asked him if he sees any ads for illegal butterflies on eBay he replied: “There are a number of imperiled butterflies openly advertised on eBay, including some listed under the Endangered Species Act or protected under laws of countries they inhabit. Some of these species are sold to collectors for hundreds or even thousands of dollars.”

Ivory products are the most popular wildlife items on Internet markets, despite a global ban on ivory sales imposed by the 180-nation Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). The National Academy of Sciences, a body of scholars established by the U.S. Congress, estimates that 100,000 elephants were killed by poachers between 2010
In less than ten minutes, I found what looked like five ivory trinkets on eBay.
and 2012, mostly to sate ivory demand of China’s newly-moneyed middle class. At that unsustainable rate elephants are likely to be extinct in the wild within two decades.

In less than ten minutes I found what looked like five ivory trinkets on eBay. When I reported them to Ryan Moore, eBay’s senior manager of global corporate affairs, four were confirmed and immediately deleted. A week later I told him about an ad for the critically endangered, globally protected Queen Alexandra’s birdwing, the world’s largest butterfly with wings sometimes spanning a foot and males aglow with iridescent yellows, blues and greens — the holy grail of collectors. Next day the ad was gone.

But such deletions scarcely make a dent. And although eBay has installed filters to catch words like “ivory,” smugglers dance around them. First, they called ivory “fauxivory.” When filters caught that ruse, smugglers called ivory “ox bone” — until filters picked up that, too. Each time eBay programs an alias into its filters another pops up. In the apt analogy of the company’s regulations and policy boss, Wolfgang Weber, kicking wildlife smugglers off eBay’s international sites is like playing the game “Whack-a-Mole.”

Private citizens like me — and even large NGOs — are hampered in our investigations because we can only flag what’s illegal or looks that way. We can’t procure hard evidence by buying the actual contraband because we’d be violating national and international laws. Not so with retired U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service special agent Ken McCloud.

Before he left the service in 2007, McCloud was in charge of all eBay investigations for the agency’s eight regions. In 2011 he took on an assignment for his then-employer — the Burlingame, California-based Peninsula Humane Society & SPCA, which is not your typical humane outfit in that it is wildlife-savvy. McCloud got permission from his former Office of Law Enforcement colleagues to buy wildlife contraband on eBay.
The sellers would say, ‘Don’t worry. We do this all the time. We’ve got contacts with Customs.’

“I just started ordering illegal items offered overseas that eBay had already warned sellers about,” he says. “I’d write the sellers through eBay and say, ‘Is this illegal and are we gonna get in trouble for it?’ They’d write back and say, ‘Don’t worry; we do this all the time. We’ve got contacts with [U.S.] Customs.’ The correspondence was juicy and blatant. When I used to go undercover to work our educated U.S. poachers and smugglers, it would take me at least a month to get them to trust me. These guys on eBay would open up the second I showed any concern. They’d give me examples of how they paid people off. Everything I bought came in falsely labeled.”

When eBay officials came to Burlingame in 2011 to view the enormous display of eBay contraband McCloud and Peninsula Humane Society & SPCA president Ken White had set up in a conference room, they were “blown away and horrified,” to borrow White’s words. “It looked like a black-market silent auction,” as one of White’s staffers put it. Soon thereafter eBay flew McCloud to its Salt Lake City, Utah, office for a day to teach screeners wildlife identification.

Until last May, McCloud was sending eBay pages-long lists of contraband he and his volunteers found advertised on its sites, along with the specific laws being violated. Here are four examples of thousands:

As McCloud’s listings of illegal ads poured in, eBay deleted many of them. But filter dodging continued.

Ken White describes eBay as “a good company with a desire to do right,” but one that still offers “a tremendous amount of illegal animal products.” White and McCloud weren’t interested in doing a sting. They wanted to work with, not against, eBay; and for a brief time they did. The company even provided modest funding; but White says he needed lots more.

“As far as we ever heard from eBay they were thrilled with how we were helping make their marketplace better,” says White. “But they wouldn’t allow us to talk about the problem through the media or even through grant requests for the financial support we believed was available. We’re a large humane society with a $13 million operating budget, but that’s
After a report found 4,304 ivory links on eBay, the company banned ivory sales from its international sites.
nothing in their world. So we ran out of money and had to shut down the program.

“This was an opportunity for a huge corporation to set an example. But eBay was unwilling to allow us to tell the story. Not only am I disappointed that they pulled the plug on our program but that it didn’t become a model for the way corporate America can work with environmental and animal welfare organizations.”

When I asked eBay’s senior manager for global regulation, Mike Rou, for a response, he referred me back to White.

Internet traffic in wildlife was accelerating the extinction process even a decade ago. In 2004 the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) launched an investigation called “Caught in the Web” that documented massive online marketing of live endangered and protected species and their parts including elephants, rhinos, sea turtles, tigers, lions, falcons, gorillas, parrots, and serval cats.

Three years later, another IFAW investigation, “Bidding for Extinction,” focused on eBay sites in the U.K., U.S., Australia, Canada, Netherlands, Germany, France, and China. IFAW reported that “of those [2,275] items we investigated, more than 90 percent breached the stated ivory listing policies of the respective eBay websites.”

Any U.S. business that helps sell wildlife or wildlife parts unlawfully obtained from any nation (or in the U.S. and transported between states, if the value is at least $350) can be prosecuted for felony violation of the Lacey Act. This fact and all the bad press provided by yet another IFAW investigation in 2008 were apparently not lost on eBay. That investigation, “Killing with Keystrokes,” revealed that of 5,159 elephant ivory listings on 7,122 online links in eight countries, 4,304 were offered by eBay. Almost simultaneously with the report’s release, the company banned ivory sale from its international sites.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service doesn’t have a cyber crimes unit, but IFAW’s findings inspired it to launch undercover stings in 2011 and 2012 called respectively Operation Cyberwild and Operation Wild Web.

In the second and more ambitious sting, agents from the service, 16 U.S. states, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia hit the Internet hard for two weeks. They didn’t pay much attention to eBay because it had made an effort to police itself. They focused instead on other sites like Etsy (apparently getting a reaction because Etsy followed eBay’s good example in 2013). Nor did they pay much attention to ivory because lobbying by big-game hunting interests, most notably Safari Club International, has
Saving endangered species requires more than misdemeanor indictments against the worst online markets.
riddled U.S. ivory laws with so many loopholes they’re nearly impossible to understand, let alone enforce.

The team didn’t go after the sites themselves. Instead, it targeted traffickers, making 154 busts. Crimes included selling everything from skins of tiger, leopard, and jaguar to whale teeth, walrus tusks, elephant ivory, dangerous invasive fish like piranhas, walking catfish, and live snakes and migratory birds.

The team knew it wouldn’t catch any big-time smugglers, but it also knew the power of publicity and how to work the media. Everyone cited was prosecuted amid a blizzard of press releases and smartly maestroed media feeding frenzies.

For a while traffickers got the message. Forty-eight hours after Operation Wild Web shut down, it had been mentioned 335 million times on the Internet.

The State of Florida, an enthusiastic participant in Operation Wild Web and with a cyber crimes unit, liked the sting so much that it does repeats about every eight months.

The ban on ivory imposed by eBay has had mixed results. In 2013, IFAW found that ads for endangered wildlife products in Australia, most on eBay, had increased 266 percent since 2008. A year later it documented a 48-percent increase in apparent ivory items offered by eBay in the U.K. On the other hand, IFAW’s team leader for wildlife cyber crime, Tania McCrea-Steele, told me this: “The ivory ban is working well on eBay sites based in Canada, Germany, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands.”

That progress doesn’t amount to much globally, and such voluntary measures clearly aren’t a solution. Last year IFAW looked at 280 online markets across 16 countries. In just six weeks it found ads for 33,006 endangered animals and their parts. About one-third were for elephant ivory.

So what is the solution? Regional field offices of the Fish and Wildlife Service have had serious discussions with prosecutors about charging eBay under a section of the federal code called “Causing an Act to be Done.” But


A Public Relations Drive to
Stop Illegal Rhino Horn Trade

Rhino PR poster
Conservation groups are mounting campaigns to persuade Vietnamese consumers that buying rhino horn is decidedly uncool. But such efforts are likely to succeed only as part of a broader initiative to crack down on an illicit trade that is decimating African rhino populations.
it’s probably not a smart move for the U.S. or any other CITES nation to take legal action against eBay. The service’s big artillery piece — Lacey Act felony prosecution — would likely be ineffective against a company that attempts, however unsuccessfully, to delete illegal items. According to Joe Johns, environmental crimes chief for the U.S. Attorney’s office in central California, prosecution under Lacey Act misdemeanor provisions — which require only proof of negligence, not knowledge and intent — might well succeed. But that’s a BB gun.

To save endangered species, CITES nations need to move with more than misdemeanor indictments against the worst online markets. Consider the mountains of wildlife contraband available on eBay, one of the very few sites that makes a good-faith effort at control, then imagine what traffic is like on those that don’t.

Global Internet marketplaces need to be required by legislation to ban all wildlife products, regardless of species, and all imitation ivory products. That’s the only way to shut down illegal trafficking and significantly slow the accelerating extinction rate.

POSTED ON 20 Apr 2015 IN Biodiversity Business & Innovation Business & Innovation Policy & Politics Science & Technology Sustainability Asia Europe North America 


We've been watching this for years, eBay's feigned attempts to stop are laughable. Here's a post we did a while back on the situation.

Posted by Peter on 21 Apr 2015

Obviously, buyers AND sellers should be prosecuted, and with penalties high enough to serve as a deterrent. Simply removing the items from listings serves little purpose. The FWS should be informed, and the goods tracked from source to destination, then the destination raided and the bank account of the vendor traced and prosecuted
Posted by Shane on 07 May 2015

Hi. This is a comment. It is a question.
I report these items, they say "Oh, we are
sorry." They remove the ONE item, and do
nothing else.
Sellers lie about their product, or don't list what
the items are made of, just start the price at
thousands of dollars so it is clearly ivory or rhino


How do we stop this? This is making
me physically ill. Please reply
Posted by T. Urquhart on 19 Sep 2016


Comments are moderated and will be reviewed before they are posted to ensure they are on topic, relevant, and not abusive. They may be edited for length and clarity. By filling out this form, you give Yale Environment 360 permission to publish this comment.

Email address 
Please type the text shown in the graphic.

ted williamsABOUT THE AUTHOR
Ted Williams, an avid hunter and angler, writes strictly about fish and wildlife conservation. He is a longtime contributor to Audubon magazine and is conservation editor for Fly Rod & Reel magazine. Previously for e360, he reported on global progress in shark conservation efforts and on a possible comeback for one of the world's oldest fish species.



The Moth Snowstorm: Finding
True Value in Nature’s Riches

Journalist Michael McCarthy has chronicled the loss of wildlife in his native Britain and globally. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, he talks about why he believes a new defense of the natural world is needed – one based on the joy and spiritual connection it provides for humans.

For A Bird Nearing Extinction,
An Indian Doctor Seeks a Cure

Numbers of the great Indian bustard are down to about 250, the result of hunting and habitat loss. But a young physician-turned-conservationist is working with herders in the desert of northwest India to stop this magnificent bird’s slide into oblivion.

The Rising Environmental Toll
Of China’s Offshore Island Grab

To stake its claim in the strategic South China Sea, China is building airstrips, ports, and other facilities on disputed islands and reefs. Scientists say the activities are destroying key coral reef ecosystems and will heighten the risks of a fisheries collapse in the region.

High Stakes on the High Seas:
A Call for International Reserves

Marine protected areas in national waters have proven successful in helping depleted fish stocks to recover. Now, there is growing momentum for the creation of extensive reserves on the high seas as a way of reversing decades of rampant overfishing.

What’s Killing Native Birds in
The Mountain Forests of Kauai?

Biologist Eben Paxton is sounding the alarm about the catastrophic collapse of native bird populations on the Hawaiian island of Kauai. His group's research has uncovered the culprit: disease-carrying mosquitoes that have invaded the birds' mountain habitat.


MORE IN Reports

For European Wind Industry,
Offshore Projects Are Booming

by christian schwägerl
As Europe’s wind energy production rises dramatically, offshore turbines are proliferating from the Irish Sea to the Baltic Sea. It’s all part of the European Union’s strong push away from fossil fuels and toward renewables.

In New Ozone Alert, A Warning
Of Harm to Plants and to People

by jim robbins
Scientists are still trying to unravel the damaging effects of ground-level ozone on life on earth. But as the world warms, their concerns about the impact of this highly toxic, pollution-caused gas are growing.

The Rising Environmental Toll
Of China’s Offshore Island Grab

by mike ives
To stake its claim in the strategic South China Sea, China is building airstrips, ports, and other facilities on disputed islands and reefs. Scientists say the activities are destroying key coral reef ecosystems and will heighten the risks of a fisheries collapse in the region.

Natural Aquaculture: Can We
Save Oceans by Farming Them?

by richard schiffman
A small but growing number of entrepreneurs are creating sea-farming operations that cultivate shellfish together with kelp and seaweed, a combination they contend can restore ecosystems and mitigate the impacts of ocean acidification.

High Stakes on the High Seas:
A Call for International Reserves

by nicola jones
Marine protected areas in national waters have proven successful in helping depleted fish stocks to recover. Now, there is growing momentum for the creation of extensive reserves on the high seas as a way of reversing decades of rampant overfishing.

For China’s Polluted Megacities,
A Focus on Slashing Emissions

by mike ives
The booming industrial center of Shenzhen is a showcase for Chinese efforts to cut CO2 emissions and make the nation's burgeoning cities more livable. But it remains to be seen whether China's runaway industrial development can give way to a low-carbon future.

Rocky Flats: A Wildlife Refuge
Confronts Its Radioactive Past

by fred pearce
The Rocky Flats Plant outside Denver was a key U.S. nuclear facility during the Cold War. Now, following a $7 billion cleanup, the government is preparing to open a wildlife refuge on the site to the public, amid warnings from some scientists that residual plutonium may still pose serious health risks.

Pressure Mounts to Reform Our
Throwaway Clothing Culture

by marc gunther
Americans dispose of about 12.8 million tons of textiles annually — 80 pounds for each man, woman, and child. In the U.S. and around the world, a growing number of environmentalists and clothing industry executives say it’s time to end the wasteful clothing culture and begin making new apparel out of old items on a large scale.

The New Green Grid: Utilities
Deploy ‘Virtual Power Plants’

by maria gallucci
By linking together networks of energy-efficient buildings, solar installations, and batteries, a growing number of companies in the U.S. and Europe are helping utilities reduce energy demand at peak hours and supply targeted areas with renewably generated electricity.

Sticker Shock: The Soaring Costs
Of Germany’s Nuclear Shutdown

by joel stonington
German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s 2011 decision to rapidly phase out the country’s 17 nuclear power reactors has left the government and utilities with a massive challenge: How to clean up and store large amounts of nuclear waste and other radioactive material.

e360 digest
Yale Environment 360 is
a publication of the
Yale School of Forestry
& Environmental Studies


Donate to Yale Environment 360
Yale Environment 360 Newsletter



About e360
Submission Guidelines

E360 en Español

Universia partnership
Yale Environment 360 articles are now available in Spanish and Portuguese on Universia, the online educational network.
Visit the site.


e360 Digest
Video Reports


Business & Innovation
Policy & Politics
Pollution & Health
Science & Technology


Antarctica and the Arctic
Central & South America
Middle East
North America

e360 VIDEO

A look at how acidifying oceans could threaten the Dungeness crab, one of the most valuable fisheries on the U.S. West Coast.
Watch the video.


The latest
from Yale
Environment 360
is now available for mobile devices at e360.yale.edu/mobile.


An aerial view of why Europe’s per capita carbon emissions are less than 50 percent of those in the U.S.
View the photos.

e360 VIDEO

An indigenous tribe’s deadly fight to save its ancestral land in the Amazon rainforest from logging.
Learn more.

e360 VIDEO

Food waste
An e360 video series looks at the staggering amount of food wasted in the U.S. – a problem with major human and environmental costs.
Watch the video.

e360 VIDEO

Choco rainforest Cacao
Residents of the Chocó Rainforest in Ecuador are choosing to plant cacao over logging in an effort to slow deforestation.
Watch the video.

e360 VIDEO

Tribal people and ranchers join together to stop a project that would haul coal across their Montana land.
Watch the video.